Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index: A Reliability Generalization Meta-Analysis

George Zangaro, Kimmith Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


A healthy work environment is a critical factor in nurse satisfaction, retention, and patient outcomes. The Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI) is the most commonly used instrument to measure the nursing practice environment. This study uses meta-analysis to examine the reliability generalization of the PES-NWI. A meta-analysis of 51 studies representing a total of 80,563 subjects was conducted. The mean score reliability for the PES-NWI based on 38 studies (n = 68,278) was.922 (p <.05). The Mean Weighted Effect Size was stronger for studies conducted in the United States versus non-U.S. (.946 vs.907). For studies rated high and moderate quality, the mean score reliability was.911 and.946, respectively. Scores on the PES-NWI are reliable for measuring the nursing practice environment across samples in the United States and non-U.S. countries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalWestern Journal of Nursing Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • meta-analysis
  • nursing work environment
  • practice environment scale
  • reliability generalization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)