Glycosylation inhibiting factor (GIF) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) share an identical structure gene. Here we unravel two steps of posttranslational modifications in GIF/MIF molecules in human suppressor T (Ts) cell hybridomas. Peptide mapping and MS analysis of the affinity-purified GIF from the Ts cells revealed that one modification is cysteinylation at Cys-60, and the other is phosphorylation at Ser-91. Cysteinylated GIF, but not the wild-type GIF/MIF, possessed immunosuppressive effects on the in vitro IgE antibody response and had high affinity for GIF receptors on the T helper hybridoma cells. In vitro treatment of wild-type recombinant human GIF/MIF with cystine resulted in preferential cysteinylation of Cys-60 in the molecules. The cysteinylated recombinant human GIF and the Ts hybridoma-derived cysteinylated GIF were comparable both in the affinity for the receptors and in the immunosuppressive activity. Polyclonal antibodies specific for a stretch of the amino acid sequence in α2-helix of GIF bound bioactive cysteinylated GIF but failed to bind wild-type GIF/MIF. These results strongly suggest that cysteinylation of Cys-60 and consequent conformational changes in the GIF/MIF molecules are responsible for the generation of GIF bioactivity.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Nov 21 2000|
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