Post-introduction economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objective. A decision-analytic model was constructed to evaluate the economic impact of post-introduction pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) programs in Ecuador, Honduras, and Paraguay from the societal perspective. Methods. Hypothetical birth cohorts were followed for a 20-year period in each country. Estimates of disease burden, vaccine effectiveness, and health care costs were derived from primary and secondary data sources. Costs were expressed in 2014 US$. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the impact of model input uncertainties. Results. Over the 20 years of vaccine program implementation, the health care costs per case ranged from US$ 764 854 to more than US$ 1 million. Vaccination prevented more than 50% of pneumococcal cases and deaths per country. At a cost of US$ 16 per dose, the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted for the 10-valent PCV (PCV10) and the 13-valet PCV (PCV13) ranged from US$ 796 (Honduras) to US$ 1 340 (Ecuador) and from US$ 691 (Honduras) to US$ 1 166 (Ecuador) respectively. At a reduced price (US$ 7 per dose), the cost per DALY averted ranged from US$ 327 (Honduras) to US$ 528 (Ecuador) and from US$ 281 (Honduras) to US$ 456 (Ecuador) for PCV10 and PCV13 respectively. Several model parameters influenced the results of the analysis, including vaccine price, vaccine efficacy, disease incidence, and costs. Conclusions. The economic impact of post-introduction PCV needs to be assessed in a context of uncertainty regarding changing antibiotic resistance, herd and serotype replacement effects, differential vaccine prices, and government budget constraints.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)388-395
Number of pages8
JournalRevista Panamericana de Salud Publica/Pan American Journal of Public Health
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2015


  • Cost-effectiveness evaluation
  • Disability-adjusted life years
  • Ecuador
  • Honduras
  • Paraguay
  • Pneumococcal vaccines, economics
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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