Population pharmacokinetics of liposomal amphotericin B in immunocompromised children

Jodi M. Lestner, Andreas H. Groll, Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Nita L. Seibel, Aziza Shad, Corina Gonzalez, Lauren V. Wood, Paul F. Jarosinski, Thomas J. Walsh, William W. Hope

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) is widely used in the treatment of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in adults and children. There are relatively limited pharmacokinetic (PK) data to inform optimal dosing in children that achieves systemic drug exposures comparable to those of adults. Our objective was to describe the pharmacokinetics of LAmB in children aged 1 to 17 years with suspected or documented IFD. Thirty-five children were treated with LAmB at doses of 2.5 to 10 mg kg-1 daily. Samples were taken at baseline and at 0.5- to 2.0-h intervals for 24 h after receipt of the first dose (n = 35 patients) and on the final day of therapy (n = 25 patients). LAmB was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The relationship between drug exposure and development of toxicity was explored. An evolution in PK was observed during the course of therapy, resulting in a proportion of patients (n = 13) having significantly higher maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) and areas under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) later in the course of therapy, without evidence of drug accumulation (trough plasma concentration accumulation ratio of <1.2). The fit of a 2-compartment model incorporating weight and an exponential decay function describing volume of distribution best described the data. There was a statistically significant relationship between mean AUC0-24 and probability of nephrotoxicity (odds ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.84 to 3.22; P = 0.004). LAmB exhibits nonlinear pharmacokinetics. A third of children appear to experience a time-dependent change in PK, which is not explained by weight, maturation, or observed clinical factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7340-7346
Number of pages7
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Volume60
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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