Poor Obstetric and Infant Outcomes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Pregnant Women with Tuberculosis in South Africa: The Tshepiso Study

Nicole Salazar-Austin, Jennifer Hoffmann, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Ziyaad Waja, Sanjay Lala, Christopher Hoffmann, Kelly E. Dooley, Richard E. Chaisson, Neil Martinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background. Before the wide availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis and human immunodefciency virus (HIV) disease among pregnant women resulted in poor maternal and neonatal outcomes, including high rates of mother-to-child transmission of both HIV and tuberculosis. We aimed to describe the impact of tuberculosis among HIV-infected mothers on obstetric and infant outcomes in a population with access to ART. Methods. In this prospective cohort study, we followed up HIV-infected pregnant women with or without tuberculosis disease from January 2011 through January 2014 in Soweto, South Africa. Two controls were enrolled for each case patient, matched by enrollment time, maternal age, gestational age, and planned delivery clinic and followed up for 12 months afer delivery. Results. We recruited 80 case patients and 155 controls, resulting in 224 live-born infants. Infants of mothers with HIV infection and tuberculosis disease had a higher risk of low birth weight (20.8% vs 10.7%; P =.04), prolonged hospitalization at birth (51% vs 16%; P <.001), infant death (68 vs 7 deaths per 1000 births; P <.001), and tuberculosis disease (12% vs 0%; P <.001) despite appropriate maternal therapy and infant tuberculosis preventive therapy. HIV transmission was higher among these infants (4.1% vs 1.3%; P =.20), though this di?erence was not statistically signifcant. Obstetric outcomes in coinfected women were also poorer with higher risks of maternal hospitalization (25% vs 11%; P =.005) and preeclampsia (5.5% vs 0.7%; P =.03). Conclusions. Tuberculosis in HIV coinfected pregnant women remains a signifcant threat to the health of both mothers and infants. Improving tuberculosis prevention and early diagnosis among pregnant women is critical.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)921-929
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume66
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 5 2018

Keywords

  • HIV
  • infant mortality
  • pregnancy
  • tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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