The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet lowers blood pressure, an important risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, it is unclear whether adherence to a DASH diet confers protection against future ESRD, especially among those with pre-existing CKD and hypertension. We examined whether a DASH diet is associated with lower risk of ESRD among 1,110 adults aged ≥ 20 years with hypertension and CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m2) enrolled in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). Baseline DASH diet accordance score was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire. ESRD was ascertained by linkage to the U.S. Renal Data System registry. We used the Fine-Gray competing risks method to estimate the relative hazard (RH) for ESRD after adjusting for sociodemographics, clinical and nutritional factors, eGFR, and albuminuria. Over a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 18.4% of subjects developed ESRD. Compared to the highest quintile of DASH diet accordance, there was a greater risk of ESRD among subjects in quintiles 1 (RH=1.7; 95% CI 1.1-2.7) and 2 (RH 2.2; 95% CI 1.1-4.1). Significant interactions were observed with diabetes status and race/ethnicity, with the strongest association between DASH diet adherence and ESRD risk observed in individuals with diabetes and in non-Hispanic blacks. Low accordance to a DASH diet is associated with greater risk of ESRD in adults with moderate CKD and hypertension, particularly in non-Hispanic blacks and persons with diabetes.
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