Pooled cohort equations heart failure risk score predicts cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in a nationally representative sample of US adults

Alexander C. Razavi, Kaitlin S. Potts, Tanika N. Kelly, Jiang He, Camilo Fernandez, Marie Krousel-Wood, Amanda H. Anderson, Joshua Bundy, Seamus P. Whelton, Roger S. Blumenthal, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Lydia A. Bazzano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Heart failure (HF) represents an accumulated burden of systemic vascular damage and is the fastest growing form of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Due to increasing HF-attributable mortality rates, we sought to assess the association of the new 2019 Pooled Cohort equations to Prevent Heart Failure (PCP-HF) risk score with CVD and all-cause mortality. Methods: We linked data for 6333 black and white men and women aged 40-79 years, whom underwent electrocardiographic examination from the Third National Health and Nutrition Exam Survey, to National Death Index record matches. Sex- A nd race-specific PCP-HF risk scores were calculated using data on age, smoking, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, QRS complex duration, and antihypertensive and/or glucose-lowering medications. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios for the association of the PCP-HF risk score with CVD and all-cause mortality. Results: Individuals were on average 54.9 years old (51.7% women, 25.4% black) and the median 10-year HF risk was 1.6% (Q1 = 0.5, Q3 = 4.8). There were 3178 deaths, 1116 from CVD, over a median follow-up time of 22.3 years. Black women had a higher 10-year HF risk compared to white women (2.1% vs. 1.1%; p < 0.01), while no significant difference was observed in predicted HF risk between black men and white men (2.3% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.16). A two-fold higher PCP-HF risk score was associated with a significant 58% (HR = 1.58; 95% CI, 1.48-1.70; p < 0.0001) and 38% (HR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.32-1.46; p < 0.0001) greater risk of CVD and all-cause mortality, respectively. Conclusion: The PCP-HF risk score predicts CVD and all-cause mortality, in addition to the 10-year risk of incident HF among white and black men and women. These results underline the expanded utility of the PCP-HF risk score and suggest that its implementation in the clinical and population health settings may improve primary CVD prevention in the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number202
JournalBMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 25 2020


  • Blood pressure
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Electrocardiography
  • Epidemiology
  • Heart failure
  • Mortality
  • Primary prevention
  • Risk
  • Social determinants of health

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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