Polyploidization and cell fusion contribute to wound healing in the adult Drosophila epithelium

Vicki P. Losick, Donald T. Fox, Allan C. Spradling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background Reestablishing epithelial integrity and biosynthetic capacity is critically important following tissue damage. The adult Drosophila abdominal epithelium provides an attractive new system to address how postmitotic diploid cells contribute to repair. Results Puncture wounds to the adult Drosophila epidermis close initially by forming a melanized scab. We found that epithelial cells near the wound site fuse to form a giant syncytium, which sends lamellae under the scab to re-epithelialize the damaged site. Other large cells arise more peripherally by initiating endocycles and becoming polyploid, or by cell fusion. Rac GTPase activity is needed for syncytium formation, while the Hippo signaling effector Yorkie modulates both polyploidization and cell fusion. Large cell formation is functionally important because when both polyploidization and fusion are blocked, wounds do not re-epithelialize. Conclusions Our observations indicate that cell mass lost upon wounding can be replaced by polyploidization instead of mitotic proliferation. We propose that large cells generated by polyploidization or cell fusion are essential because they are better able than diploid cells to mechanically stabilize wounds, especially those containing permanent acellular structures, such as scar tissue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2224-2232
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Biology
Volume23
Issue number22
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 18 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

cell fusion
Cell Fusion
tissue repair
Wound Healing
Drosophila
Fusion reactions
epithelium
Epithelium
animal injuries
Wounds and Injuries
Giant Cells
Diploidy
giant cells
cells
Tissue
Polyploidy
GTP Phosphohydrolases
diploidy
Electric fuses
Punctures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

Cite this

Polyploidization and cell fusion contribute to wound healing in the adult Drosophila epithelium. / Losick, Vicki P.; Fox, Donald T.; Spradling, Allan C.

In: Current Biology, Vol. 23, No. 22, 18.11.2013, p. 2224-2232.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Losick, Vicki P. ; Fox, Donald T. ; Spradling, Allan C. / Polyploidization and cell fusion contribute to wound healing in the adult Drosophila epithelium. In: Current Biology. 2013 ; Vol. 23, No. 22. pp. 2224-2232.
@article{c4d17caf587347088913ff7b8e693805,
title = "Polyploidization and cell fusion contribute to wound healing in the adult Drosophila epithelium",
abstract = "Background Reestablishing epithelial integrity and biosynthetic capacity is critically important following tissue damage. The adult Drosophila abdominal epithelium provides an attractive new system to address how postmitotic diploid cells contribute to repair. Results Puncture wounds to the adult Drosophila epidermis close initially by forming a melanized scab. We found that epithelial cells near the wound site fuse to form a giant syncytium, which sends lamellae under the scab to re-epithelialize the damaged site. Other large cells arise more peripherally by initiating endocycles and becoming polyploid, or by cell fusion. Rac GTPase activity is needed for syncytium formation, while the Hippo signaling effector Yorkie modulates both polyploidization and cell fusion. Large cell formation is functionally important because when both polyploidization and fusion are blocked, wounds do not re-epithelialize. Conclusions Our observations indicate that cell mass lost upon wounding can be replaced by polyploidization instead of mitotic proliferation. We propose that large cells generated by polyploidization or cell fusion are essential because they are better able than diploid cells to mechanically stabilize wounds, especially those containing permanent acellular structures, such as scar tissue.",
author = "Losick, {Vicki P.} and Fox, {Donald T.} and Spradling, {Allan C.}",
year = "2013",
month = "11",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1016/j.cub.2013.09.029",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "23",
pages = "2224--2232",
journal = "Current Biology",
issn = "0960-9822",
publisher = "Cell Press",
number = "22",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Polyploidization and cell fusion contribute to wound healing in the adult Drosophila epithelium

AU - Losick, Vicki P.

AU - Fox, Donald T.

AU - Spradling, Allan C.

PY - 2013/11/18

Y1 - 2013/11/18

N2 - Background Reestablishing epithelial integrity and biosynthetic capacity is critically important following tissue damage. The adult Drosophila abdominal epithelium provides an attractive new system to address how postmitotic diploid cells contribute to repair. Results Puncture wounds to the adult Drosophila epidermis close initially by forming a melanized scab. We found that epithelial cells near the wound site fuse to form a giant syncytium, which sends lamellae under the scab to re-epithelialize the damaged site. Other large cells arise more peripherally by initiating endocycles and becoming polyploid, or by cell fusion. Rac GTPase activity is needed for syncytium formation, while the Hippo signaling effector Yorkie modulates both polyploidization and cell fusion. Large cell formation is functionally important because when both polyploidization and fusion are blocked, wounds do not re-epithelialize. Conclusions Our observations indicate that cell mass lost upon wounding can be replaced by polyploidization instead of mitotic proliferation. We propose that large cells generated by polyploidization or cell fusion are essential because they are better able than diploid cells to mechanically stabilize wounds, especially those containing permanent acellular structures, such as scar tissue.

AB - Background Reestablishing epithelial integrity and biosynthetic capacity is critically important following tissue damage. The adult Drosophila abdominal epithelium provides an attractive new system to address how postmitotic diploid cells contribute to repair. Results Puncture wounds to the adult Drosophila epidermis close initially by forming a melanized scab. We found that epithelial cells near the wound site fuse to form a giant syncytium, which sends lamellae under the scab to re-epithelialize the damaged site. Other large cells arise more peripherally by initiating endocycles and becoming polyploid, or by cell fusion. Rac GTPase activity is needed for syncytium formation, while the Hippo signaling effector Yorkie modulates both polyploidization and cell fusion. Large cell formation is functionally important because when both polyploidization and fusion are blocked, wounds do not re-epithelialize. Conclusions Our observations indicate that cell mass lost upon wounding can be replaced by polyploidization instead of mitotic proliferation. We propose that large cells generated by polyploidization or cell fusion are essential because they are better able than diploid cells to mechanically stabilize wounds, especially those containing permanent acellular structures, such as scar tissue.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84889078273&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84889078273&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.cub.2013.09.029

DO - 10.1016/j.cub.2013.09.029

M3 - Article

VL - 23

SP - 2224

EP - 2232

JO - Current Biology

JF - Current Biology

SN - 0960-9822

IS - 22

ER -