Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 1 and MMP3 are enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix and have been implicated to play an important role in cancer development. Many studies have been carried out on the association between polymorphisms of MMP1 -1607 1G>2G and MMP3 -1171 5A>6A and cancer risk. However, results from these studies remain inconclusive. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of >38 000 subjects to better assess the purported associations. For MMP1, -1607 2G/2G genotype carriers were found to have an increased risk of colorectal cancer [2G/2G versus 2G/1G + 1G/1G, odds ratio (OR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.26-1.74), Pheterogeneity = 0.066, I2 = 49.3%], head and neck cancer [2G/2G versus 2G/1G + 1G/1G, OR = 1.61, 95% CI (1.26-2.07), Pheterogeneity = 0.002, I2 = 64.7%] and renal cancer [2G/2G versus 2G/1G + 1G/1G, OR = 1.82, 95% CI (1.38-2.39), Pheterogeneity = 0.589, I2 = 0.0%] risk. For MMP3, no association was found between -1171 5A>6A polymorphism and cancer risk in the overall group [6A versus 5A, OR = 1.00, 95% CI (0.95-1.05), Pheterogeneity = 0.124, I 2 = 24.9%] and individual cancer subgroups, but stratified analysis by smoking status showed that this polymorphism had different effects on smokers and non-smokers under recessive genetic model. In summary, our study suggests that MMP1 -1607 2G may be associated with an increased cancer risk for certain types of cancers, MMP3 -1171 5A>6A may not be a major risk factor for cancer, but it may be modified by certain environmental factors. Future studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to further evaluate these associations in more detail.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis