Polymorphisms in Th1/Th2 cytokine genes, hormone replacement therapy, and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Gongjian Zhu, Dongsheng Pan, Tongzhang Zheng, Qing Lan, Xuezhong Chen, Yingtai Chen, Christopher Kim, Xiaofeng Bi, Theodore Holford, Peter Boyle, Brian Leaderer, Stephen J. Chanock, Nathaniel Rothman, Yawei Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We conducted a population-based case-control study in Connecticut women to test the hypothesis that genetic variations in Th1 and Th2 cytokine genes modify the relationship between hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Compared to women without a history of HRT use, women with a history of HRT use had a significantly decreased risk of NHL if they carried IFNGR2 (rs1059293) CT/TT genotypes (OR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.3-0.9), IL13 (rs20541) GG genotype (OR = 0.6, 95%CI: 0.4-0.9), and IL13 (rs1295686) CC genotype (OR = 0.6, 95%CI: 0.4-0.8), but not among women who carried IFNGR2 CC, IL13 AG/AA, and IL13CT/TT genotypes. A similar pattern was also observed for B-cell lymphoma but not for T-cell lymphoma. A statistically significant interaction was observed for IFNGR2 (rs1059293 Pfor interaction = 0.024), IL13(rs20541 Pfor interaction = 0.005), IL13 (rs1295686 Pfor interaction = 0.008), and IL15RA (rs2296135 Pfor interaction = 0.049) for NHL overall; IL13 (rs20541 Pfor interaction = 0.0009), IL13(rs1295686 Pfor interaction = 0.0002), and IL15RA (rs2296135 Pfor interaction = 0.041) for B-cell lymphoma. The results suggest that common genetic variation in Th1/Th2 pathway genes may modify the association between HRT and NHL risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number00021
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
Issue numberJUL
StatePublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Genetic polymorphisms
  • HRT
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Th1/Th2 cytokines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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