Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to determine need for head computed tomography (CT) within 12 h after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) (Glasgow Coma Score [GCS] 13-15); S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) serves this function in Europe. This phase 1 biomarker cohort analysis of the multi-center, observational Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury (TRACK-TBI) study compares GFAP's diagnostic performance, measured on a rapid point-of-care platform, against protein S100B to predict intracranial abnormalities on CT within 24 h post-injury across the spectrum of TBI (GCS 3-15). Head CT scan performed in TBI subjects and blood was collected for all consenting subjects presenting to 18 United States level 1 trauma centers. Plasma was analyzed on a point-of-care device prototype assay for GFAP and serum was analyzed for S100B. In 1359 patients with TBI (GCS 3-15), mean (standard deviation [SD]) age = 40.1 (17.0) years; 68% were male. Plasma GFAP levels were significantly higher in CT+ TBI subjects (median = 1358 pg/mL, interquartile range [IQR]: 472-3803) than in CT- TBI subjects (median = 116 pg/mL, IQR: 26-397) or orthopedic trauma controls (n = 122; median = 13 pg/mL, IQR: 7-20), p < 0.001. Serum S100B levels were likewise higher in CT+ TBI subjects (median = 0.17 μg/L, IQR: 0.09-0.38) than in CT- TBI subjects (median = 0.10 μg/L, IQR: 0.06-0.18), p < 0.001. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated for prediction of intracranial injury on admission CT scan; area under the curve (AUC) for GFAP was significantly higher than for S100B in the same cohort (GFAP AUC - 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-0.87; S100B AUC - 0.67, 95% CI 0.64-0.70; p < 0.001). GFAP, measured on a point-of-care platform prototype assay, has high discriminative ability to predict intracranial abnormalities on CT scan in patients with TBI across the full injury spectrum of GCS 3-15 through 24 h post-injury. GFAP substantially outperforms S100B.
- glial fibrillary acidic protein
- S100 calcium-binding protein B
- traumatic brain injury
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology