Planning recommendations for international emergency medicine and out-of-hospital care system development

C. James Holliman, Michael J. VanRooyen, Gary B. Green, Thomas D. Kirsch, Herman H. Delooz, Kathleen J. Clem, Tamara L. Thomas, Mark A. Davis, Ewen Wang, Allan B. Wolfson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To present suggestions on planning for development of emergency medicine (EM) and out-of-hospital care in countries that are in an early phase of this process, and to provide basic background information for planners not already familiar with EM. Methods: The techniques and programs used by the authors and others in assisting in EM development in other countries to date are described. Conclusions: Some aspects of EM system development have applicability to most countries, but other aspects must be decided by planners based on country-specific factors. Because of the very recent initiation of many EM system development efforts in other countries, to the authors' knowledge there have not yet been extensive evaluative reports of the efficacy of these efforts. Further studies are needed on the relative effectiveness and cost-benefit of different EM development efforts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)911-917
Number of pages7
JournalAcademic Emergency Medicine
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes


  • EMS systems
  • Emergency medicine development
  • International emergency medicine
  • System development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine


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