Objective: Pituitary autoimmunity is often found in association with other endocrine autoimmune or non-autoimmune diseases. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of serum pituitary antibodies (PitAb) in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Research design and methods: In this casecontrol study 111 patients with T1DM, 110 patients with T2DM, and 214 healthy controls were enrolled in a tertiary referral center. Pituitary, thyroperoxidase, thyroglobulin, 21-hydroxylase, and parietal cell antibodies were assessed in all cases. Endocrine function was further assessed by basal hormone measurement and by dynamic tests, as well as a pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in those patients found positive for PitAb. Results: PitAb prevalence was higher in T1DM (4 out of 111, 3.6%) than in T2DM (0 out of 110, p=0.045) and in healthy subjects (1 out of 214, 0.5% p=0.029). Prevalence of other autoimmune diseases was significantly higher in patients with T1DM (45 out of 111, 40.5%) when compared with patients with T2DM (18 out of 110 T2DM, 16.3%, p<0.001). Patients with T1DM and PitAb positivity were found with a pituitary lesion at MRI in 2 cases and pituitary dysfunction in one case. Conclusions: A significant association between pituitary autoimmunity and T1DM was found, in particular in subjects with one or more other endocrine autoimmune diseases.
- Diabetes mellitus
- Pituitary antibodies
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism