Citrate-stabilized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were coated with one of carboxymethyl dextran (CM-dextran), polyethylene glycol-polyethylene imine (PEG-PEI), methoxy-PEG-phosphate+rutin, or dextran. They were characterized for size, zeta potential, hysteresis heating in an alternating magnetic field, dynamic magnetic susceptibility, and examined for their distribution in mouse organs following intravenous delivery. Except for PEG-PEI-coated nanoparticles, all coated nanoparticles had a negative zeta potential at physiological pH. Nanoparticle sizing by dynamic light scattering revealed an increased nanoparticle hydrodynamic diameter upon coating. Magnetic hysteresis heating changed little with coating; however, the larger particles demonstrated significant shifts of the peak of complex magnetic susceptibility to lower frequency. 48 hours following intravenous injection of nanoparticles, mice were sacrificed and tissues were collected to measure iron concentration. Iron deposition from nanoparticles possessing a negative surface potential was observed to have highest accumulation in livers and spleens. In contrast, iron deposition from positively charged PEG-PEI-coated nanoparticles was observed to have highest concentration in lungs. These preliminary results suggest a complex interplay between nanoparticle size and charge determines organ distribution of systemically-delivered iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles.
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