Phenotyping of Acute Kidney Injury: Beyond Serum Creatinine

Dennis G. Moledina, Chirag Parikh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Summary: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in hospitalized patients and is associated with adverse short- and long-term outcomes. AKI is diagnosed by serum creatinine (SCr)-based consensus definitions that capture an abrupt decrease in glomerular filtration rate associated with AKI. However, SCr-based AKI definitions lack sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing structural kidney injury. Moreover, AKI is a heterogeneous condition consisting of distinct phenotypes based on its etiology, prognosis, and molecular pathways, and that may potentially require different therapies. SCr-based AKI definitions provide no information on these AKI phenotypes. This review highlights traditional and novel tools that overcome the limitations of SCr-based AKI definitions to improve AKI phenotyping.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-11
Number of pages9
JournalSeminars in Nephrology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2018
Externally publishedYes



  • AKI
  • biomarkers
  • creatinine
  • cystatin C
  • furosemide
  • IL-18
  • IL-6
  • KIM-1
  • L-FABP
  • NGAL
  • urinary casts
  • urine microscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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