Phenotypic coreceptor tropism in perinatally HIV-infected youth failing antiretroviral therapy

Allison L. Agwu, Tzy Jyun Yao, Susan H. Eshleman, Kunjal Patel, Wei Huang, Sandra K. Burchett, George K. Siberry, Russell B. Van Dyke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children and youth are often heavily treatment-experienced, with resultant antiretroviral resistance and limited treatment options. For those with virologic failure (VF), new agents such as CCR5 (R5) antagonists may be useful; however, reports of R5 antagonist susceptibility in children have mostly relied on genotypic testing, which may not accurately reflect the phenotypic tropism of the viral populations. We characterized phenotypic coreceptor usage among PHIV children and youth with VF on antiretroviral treatment to identify predictors of CXCR4 (X4) tropism which preclude R5 antagonist use. Methods: Plasma samples with >1000 HIV RNA copies/mL were obtained from 73 PHIV antiretroviral treatment-treated children and youth (age 9-21 years) enrolled in the multicenter Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. Samples were analyzed using the Trofile phenotypic assay. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with detectable X4 tropism. Results: Tropism results were obtained for 59 (81%) of the 73 children and youth; 32 (54%) had X4-tropism. Persistent viremia (≥80% of HIV RNA measurements >400 copies/mL) was associated with detectable X4 tropism (adjusted odds ratio: 6.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 31.4), while longer cumulative nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor use was associated with lower risk of X4 tropism (adjusted odds ratio: 0.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.5, 0.9). Conclusions: Using a phenotypic assay, >50% of PHIV children and youth with VF had X4 tropism, similar to that in experienced adults, and higher than the 30% reported for children using genotypic assays. Persistent viremia and shorter nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor exposure are associated with X4-tropism in children and youth and may help target phenotypic testing to those most likely to benefit from R5 antagonist.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)777-781
Number of pages5
JournalPediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Volume35
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016

Keywords

  • CCR5
  • adolescents
  • coreceptor tropism
  • perinatally HIV-infected
  • youth

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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