Purpose: Pathologic examination of prostate glands removed from patients with prostate cancer commonly reveals infiltrating CD4+ and CD8 + T cells. Little is known about the phenotype of these cells, despite accumulating evidence suggesting a potential role for chronic inflammation in the etiology of prostate cancer. Experimental Design: We developed a technique that samples the majority of the peripheral prostate through serial needle aspirates. CD4+ prostate-infiltrating lymphocytes (PIL) were isolated using magnetic beads and analyzed for subset skewing using both flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. The transcriptional profile of fluorescence-activated cell sorted prostate-infiltrating regulatory T cells (CD4+, CD25+, GITR+) was compared with naïve, peripheral blood Tcells using microarray analysis. Results: CD4+ PIL showed a paucity of T H2 (interleukin-4- secreting) cells, a surprising finding given the generally accepted association of these cells with chronic, smoldering inflammation. Instead, CD4+ PIL seemed to be skewed towards a regulatoryTreg phenotype (FoxP3+) as well as towards theTH17 phenotype (interleukin-17+). We also found that a preponderance of TH17-mediated inflammation was associated with a lower pathologic Gleason score. These protein level data were reflected at the message level, as analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Microarray analysis of pooled prostate-infiltrating Treg revealed expected Treg-associated transcripts (FoxP3, CTLA-4, GITR, LAG-3) as well as a number of unique cell surface markers that may serve as additional T reg markers. Conclusion: Taken together, these data suggest that TH17 and/orTreg CD4+ Tcells (rather than T H2 Tcells) may be involved in the development or progression of prostate cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research