Phase II Study of Weekly Intravenous Oxaliplatin Combined With Oral Daily Capecitabine and Radiotherapy With Biologic Correlates in Neoadjuvant Treatment of Rectal Adenocarcinoma

Marwan G. Fakih, Kelli BullardDunn, Gary Y. Yang, Lakshmi Pendyala, Karoly Toth, Chris Andrews, Youcef M. Rustum, Mary Ellen Ross, Charles LeVea, Ajithkumar Puthillath, Young Mee Park, Ashwani Rajput

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a combination of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and radiotherapy (RT) in the neoadjuvant treatment of Stage II and III rectal cancers. Methods: Capecitabine was given at 725 mg/m2 orally twice daily Monday through Friday concurrently with RT. Oxaliplatin was given intravenously at 50 mg/m2 once weekly five times starting the first day of RT. The radiation dose was 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions (1.8 Gy/fraction), five fractions weekly. Endorectal tumor biopsies were obtained before treatment and on the third day of treatment to explore the effects of treatment on thymidine phosphorylase, thymidylate synthase, excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency complementation group 1 (ERCC1), and apoptosis. Results: A total of 25 patients were enrolled in this study; 6 patients (24%) had a complete pathologic response. T-downstaging occurred in 52% of patients, and N-downstaging occurred in 53%. Grade 3 diarrhea was the most common Grade 3-4 toxicity, occurring in 20% of patients. Only 2 patients experienced disease recurrence, with a median of 20 months of follow-up. Thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase, ERCC1, and apoptosis did not vary significantly between the pretreatment and Day 3 tumor biopsies, nor did they predict for T-downstaging or a complete pathologic response. Conclusion: Capecitabine at 725 mg/m2 orally twice daily, oxaliplatin 50 mg/m2/wk, and RT at 50.4 Gy is an effective neoadjuvant combination for Stage II and III rectal cancer and results in a greater rate of complete pathologic responses than historically shown in fluoropyrimidine plus RT controls.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)650-657
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Volume72
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2008
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Capecitabine
  • Chemoradiotherapy
  • Oxaliplatin
  • Phase II
  • Rectal cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

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