Phase II study of chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads in patients with hepatic neuroendocrine metastases: High incidence of biliary injury

Nikhil Bhagat, Diane K. Reyes, Mingde Lin, Ihab Kamel, Timothy M. Pawlik, Constantine Frangakis, J. F. Geschwind

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate safety in an interim analysis of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with doxorubicin-eluting beads (DEB) in 13 patients with hepatic metastases from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) as part of a phase II trial. Methods: Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent were obtained. Thirteen patients completed preliminary safety analysis. Their mean age was 65 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status was 0/1, tumor burden range was 4-75 %, and mean targeted tumor size was 5.9 cm. Up to four DEB-TACE sessions (100-300 μm beads loaded with ≤100 mg doxorubicin) within 6 months were allowed. Tumor response was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging 1 month after treatment using contrast-enhancement [European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and size Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)] criteria. Safety was assessed by National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria. Results:: DEB-TACE was successfully performed in all 13 patients. At 1 month follow-up, there was a mean 12 % decrease in tumor size (p < 0.0003) and a 56 % decrease in tumor enhancement (p < 0.0001). By EASL criteria, the targeted lesion objective response rate was 78 %. Grade 3 to 4 toxicities were fatigue (23 %), increased alanine amino transferase (15 %), hyperglycemia (15 %), and abdominal pain (8 %). Seven patients developed bilomas (54 %); all of these patients had multiple small (<4 cm) lesions. Subsequently, four underwent percutaneous drainage, three for abscess formation and one for symptoms related to mass effect. Conclusions: Although biloma and liver abscess are known risks after TACE, the high incidence in our study population was unexpected and forced interruption of the trial. Although this occurred in a small group of patients, we have changed our technique and patient selection as a result of these findings, thus allowing resumption of the trial.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)449-459
Number of pages11
JournalCardiovascular and interventional radiology
Volume36
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2013

Keywords

  • Biliary injury
  • Chemoembolization
  • Drug-eluting beads
  • Neuroendocrine metastases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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