Purpose: The objectives of this phase I trial were to determine the dose- limiting toxicities (DLTs) of the novel topoisomerase I inhibitor topotecan combined with cisplatin, to define the maximum-tolerated doses (MTDs) of the combination without and with the use of filgrastim, and to define recommended doses for phase II trials. Patients and Methods: Patients with advanced solid tumors were eligible if they had normal bone marrow, renal, and hepatic function and had not previously been treated with platinum compounds. Topotecan was administered intravenously on days 1 through 5 and cisplatin was administered intravenously on day 1 of a 21-day cycle. The topotecan dose was fixed at 1.0 mg/m2/d on the first four dose levels, and cisplatin was escalated in 25-mg/m2 increments from 25 to 100 mg/m2 without filgrastim. After encountering DLT, the dose of cisplatin was decreased by one level and topotecan dose escalation was attempted. After defining the MTD without growth factor, the study proceeded with escalating cisplatin doses to define the MTD with filgrastim 5 μg/kg subcutaneously (SC) daily starting on day 6 of treatment. Priming with filgrastim 5 μg/kg SC on days -6 to -2 before the first course was explored last. Results: Of 38 patients entered, 37 were eligible, 35 assessable for toxicity in the first course, and 28 assessable for response. The principal toxicity was grade 4 neutropenia, which had to last more than 7 days to be considered dose-limiting. No DLT was observed at the starting cisplatin dose of 25 mg/m2 (dose level 1). On level 2 (cisplatin 50 mg/m2), one patient had dose-limiting neutropenia and one patient had grade 3 renal toxicity. On level 3 (cisplatin 75 mg/m2), two patients had dose-limiting neutropenia. Therefore, cisplatin dose escalation was stopped. On dose level 5 (cisplatin 50 mg/m2 and topotecan 1.25 mg/m2/d), one patient had grade 4 neutropenia that lasted more than 7 days and one patient died of neutropenic sepsis. The remaining dose levels used topotecan 1.0 mg/m2/d plus cisplatin 75 mg/m2 (level 6) and 100 mg/m2 (levels 7 and 8) with filgrastim. No DLT was observed on level 6. On level 7, two patients had dose-limiting neutropenia and one patient had grade 3 hyperbilirubinemia. Priming with filgrastim on level 8 demonstrated no obvious advantage over level 7, and one patient had grade 4 thrombocytopenia that lasted more than 7 days. Three patients with non-small-cell lung cancer achieved a partial response and one patient with breast cancer had a complete response. Conclusion: Topotecan and cisplatin in combination cause more neutropenia than expected from either drug given alone at the same dosage. The recommended phase II doses are topotecan 1.0 mg/m2/d for 5 days in combination with cisplatin 50 mg/m2 on day 1 without filgrastim or cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 with filgrastim support.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research