Purpose: To assess the feasibility of administering PN401, an oral uridine prodrug, as a rescue agent for the toxic effects of fluorauracil (5- FU), and to determine the maximum-tolerated dose of 5-FU when given with PN401, with an 8-hour treatment interval between these agents. Patients and Methods: Patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated with escalating doses of 5-FU, given as a rapid intravenous infusion weekly for 3 consecutive weeks every 4 weeks. PN401 was administered orally 8 hours after 5-FU administration, to achieve sustained plasma uridine concentrations of at least 50 μmol/L. Initially, patients received 6 g of PN401 orally every 8 hours for eight doses (schedule 1). When dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was consistently noted, patients then received 6 g of PN401 every 2 hours for three doses and every 6 hours thereafter for 15 doses (schedule 2). Results: Twenty-three patients received 50 courses of 5-FU and PN401. Among patients on schedule 1, DLT (grade 4 neutropenia complicated by fever and diarrhea) occurred in those receiving 5-FU 1,250 mg/m2/wk. Among patients on schedule 2, 5-FU 1,250 mg/m2/wk was well tolerated, but grade 4, protracted (> 5 days) neutropenia was consistently noted in those treated with higher doses of the drugs. Nonhematologic effects were uncommon and rarely severe. The pharmacokinetics of 5-FU, assessed in 12 patients on schedule 2, were nonlinear, with the mean area under the time-versus-concentration curve (AUC) increasing from 298 ± 44 to 962 ± 23 μmol/L and mean clearance decreasing from 34 ± 4 to 15.6 ± 0.38 L/h/m2 as the dose of 5-FU was increased from 1,250 to 1,950 mg/m2/wk. 5-FU AUCs achieved with 5-FU 1,250 mg/m2/wk for 6 weeks along with the intensified PN401 dose schedule were approximately five- fold higher than those achieved with 5-FU alone. Plasma uridine concentrations increased with each of the three PN401 doses given every 2 hours, and uridine steady-state concentrations were greater than 50 μmol/L. Conclusion: Treatment with oral PN401 beginning 8 hours after 5-FU administration is well tolerated and results in sustained plasma uridine concentrations above therapeutic-relevant levels. The recommended 5-FU dosage for phase II evaluations is 1,250 mg/m2/wk for 3 weeks every 4 weeks with the intensified PN401 dose schedule (schedule 2). At this dose, systemic exposure to 5-FU as measured by AUC was five-fold higher than that observed after administration of a conventional 5-FU bolus.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research