Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by uncontrolled terminal complement activation and subsequent intravascular hemolysis (IVH). C5 inhibitors prevent membrane attack complex formation, but patients may experience extravascular hemolysis (EVH) and continue to require blood transfusions. Danicopan, an oral proximal complement inhibitor of alternative pathway factor D (FD), is designed to control IVH and EVH. In a phase 2 dose-finding trial, eculizumab-treated transfusion-dependent patients with PNH (n = 12) received danicopan, 100 to 200 mg thrice daily, in addition to their eculizumab regimen for 24 weeks. End points included hemoglobin (Hgb) change vs baseline at week 24 (primary), reduction in blood transfusions, and patient-reported outcomes. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics were measured. Twelve patients received ≥1 danicopan dose; 1 patients discontinued from a serious adverse event deemed unlikely related to danicopan. Eleven patients completed the 24-week treatment period. Addition of danicopan resulted in a mean Hgb increase of 2.4 g/dL at week 24. In the 24 weeks prior to danicopan, 10 patients received 31 transfusions (50 units) compared with 1 transfusion (2 units) in 1 patient during the 24-week treatment period. Mean Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)-Fatigue score increased by 11 points from baseline to week 24. The most common adverse events were headache, cough, and nasopharyngitis. Addition of danicopan, a first-in-class FD inhibitor, led to a meaningful improvement in Hgb and reduced transfusion requirements in patients with PNH who were transfusion-dependent on eculizumab. These benefits were associated with improvement of FACIT-Fatigue. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT03472885.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology