Pharmacokinetics and safety of oral levofloxacin in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals receiving concomitant zidovudine

S. C. Chien, A. T. Chow, M. C. Rogge, R. R. Williams, Craig Hendrix

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This phase I, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel- design study was conducted to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects concomitantly receiving a stable regimen of zidovudine (AZT). Sixteen HIV- infected males with CD4-cell counts ranging from 100 to 550 and not experiencing significant AZT intolerance were enrolled. Subjects received levofloxacin (350 mg of levofloxacin hemihydrate) or a placebo (eight subjects per treatment group) as a single oral dose on day 1, multiple doses every 8 h from days 3 to 9, and a single dose on day 10. On days 1 and 10, an AZT dose (100 mg) was administered concurrently with the study drug. In between these doses, AZT was administered according to the regimen used by the subject prior to entering the study up to a maximum of 500 mg/day. Plasma levofloxacin concentrations were monitored for 36 h after levofloxacin dosing on day 1, immediately prior to the morning doses on days 3 to 9, and for 72 h after dosing on day 10. Plasma AZT concentrations were monitored on day 0 for baseline (for 6 h after the AZT dose) and for 4 h after the AZT doses on days 1 and 10. Levofloxacin was rapidly absorbed (time to maximum plasma concentration. ~1.0 h) and extensively distributed in the body with an apparent volume of distribution of ~104 liters (~1.34 liters/kg). Steady- state conditions on day 10 were confirmed. Pharmacokinetic profiles of levofloxacin from single doses and multiple (three-times-daily) doses were similar, with a moderate accumulation (observed day 10-to-day 1 ratio of the maximum plasma concentration, ~185% versus expected 169%; for the corresponding ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 8 h [AUC(0-8)], the values were observed 217% versus expected 169%) at steady state. Mean average steady-state peak plasma concentration, plasma levofloxacin concentration at the end of the dosing interval. AUC(0-8), terminal half-life, and total body clearance were 7.06 μg/ml, 3.62 μg/ml, 37.4 μg · h/ml, 7.2 h, and 9.4 liters h (0.12 liters/h/kg), respectively. Pharmacokinetic profiles of levofloxacin in HIV-infected patients did not appear to be affected by the concomitant administration of AZT; nor were AZT pharmacokinetics altered by levofloxacin. Oral administration of 350 mg of levofloxacin hemihydrate every 8 h appeared to be well tolerated by the subjects. There were no apparent differences in adverse events between the two treatment groups. There were no clinically significant changes from baseline in any laboratory parameter or vital sign following treatments observed in this study. The study results suggest that there is no need for levofloxacin dosage adjustment in HIV-seropositive subjects who concomitantly receive AZT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1765-1769
Number of pages5
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1997


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

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