BACKGROUND: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a commonly used contraceptive in areas where use of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is increasing. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the impact of DMPA on PrEP drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in women using PrEP before and after DMPA administration. METHODS: In this pilot study, 12 HIV-negative women ages 18-45 underwent biological sample collection at 3 time points: before study drug, after 2 weeks of daily PrEP use alone, and after 2 weeks of daily PrEP and concomitant DMPA use. We measured drug and drug metabolites in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, cervicovaginal fluid, cervical tissue, and rectal fluid after each 2-week course of PrEP. We measured HIV replication ex vivo in genital tissue biopsies and innate anti-HIV activity in cervicovaginal fluid before PrEP and after both courses. We compared drug concentrations after PrEP alone to after PrEP and DMPA in the same participant using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. We used mixed effects linear regression models to compare pharmacodynamic measures for each participant at predrug baseline, after PrEP alone, and after PrEP and DMPA. RESULTS: We found no significant differences in PrEP drug and drug metabolite concentrations in any compartment during concomitant DMPA use compared with use of PrEP alone, except for a reduction in emtricitabine concentration in cervical tissue. We found no difference in HIV replication in cervical tissue or anti-HIV activity in cervicovaginal fluid during concomitant DMPA and PrEP use compared with during PrEP use alone. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant use of DMPA does not clinically alter pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of PrEP in women. These data support the safety of DMPA use in women using PrEP.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)|
|State||Published - Oct 1 2020|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases
- Pharmacology (medical)