Pharmacodynamics of amphotericin B deoxycholate, amphotericin B lipid complex, and liposomal amphotericin B against Aspergillus fumigatus

Zaid Al-Nakeeb, Vidmantas Petraitis, Joanne Goodwin, Ruta Petraitiene, Thomas J. Walsh, William W. Hope

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Amphotericin B is a first-line agent for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis. However, relatively little is known about the pharmacodynamics of amphotericin B for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. We studied the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of amphotericin B deoxycholate (DAMB), amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC), and liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB) by using a neutropenic-rabbit model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The study endpoints were lung weight, infarct score, and levels of circulating galactomannan and (1→3)-β-D-glucan. Mathematical models were used to describe PK-PD relationships. The experimental findings were bridged to humans by Monte Carlo simulation. Each amphotericin B formulation induced a dose-dependent decline in study endpoints. Near-maximal antifungal activity was evident with DAMB at 1 mg/kg/day and ABLC and LAMB at 5 mg/kg/day. The bridging study suggested that the "average" patient receiving LAMB at 3 mg/kg/day was predicted to have complete suppression of galactomannan and (1→3)-β-D-glucan levels, but 20 to 30% of the patients still had a galactomannan index of >1 and (1→3)-β-D-glucan levels of >60 pg/ml. All formulations of amphotericin B induce a dose-dependent reduction in markers of lung injury and circulating fungus-related biomarkers. A clinical dosage of liposomal amphotericin B of 3 mg/kg/day is predicted to cause complete suppression of galactomannan and (1→3)-β-D-glucan levels in the majority of patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2735-2745
Number of pages11
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology
  • Infectious Diseases

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