SQ109 is a novel [1,2]-diamine-based ethambutol (EMB) analog developed from high-throughput combinatorial screening. The present study aimed at characterizing its pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The antimicrobial activity of SQ109 was confirmed in vitro (Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected murine macrophages) and in vivo (M. tuberculosis-infected C57BL/6 mice) and compared to isoniazid (INH) and EMB. SQ109 showed potency and efficacy in inhibiting intracellular M. tuberculosis that was similar to INH, but superior to EMB. In vivo oral administration of SQ109 (0.1-25 mg kg -1 day -1) to the mice for 28 days resulted in dose-dependent reductions of mycobacterial load in both spleen and lung comparable to that of EMB administered at 100 mg kg -1 day -1, but was less potent than INH at 25 mg kg -1 day -1. Monitoring of SQ109 levels in mouse tissues on days 1, 14 and 28 following 28-day oral administration (10 mg kg -1 day -1) revealed that lungs and spleen contained the highest concentration of SQ109, at least 10 times above its MIC. Pharmacokinetic profiles of SQ109 in mice following a single administration showed its C max as 1038 (intravenous (i.v.)) and 135 ng ml -1 (p.o.), with an oral T max of 0.31 h. The elimination t 1/2 of SQ109 was 3.5 (i.v.) and 5.2 h (p.o.). The oral bioavailability was 4%. However, SQ109 displayed a large volume of distribution into various tissues. The highest concentration of SQ109 was present in lung (> MIC), which was at least 120-fold (p.o.) and 180-fold (i.v.) higher than that in plasma. The next ranked tissues were spleen and kidney. SQ109 levels in most tissues after a single administration were significantly higher than that in blood. High tissue concentrations of SQ109 persisted for the observation period (10 h). This study demonstrated that SQ109 displays promising in vitro and in vivo antitubercular activity with favorable targeted tissue distribution properties.
ASJC Scopus subject areas