Perspectives on Factors Related to HIV Risk and Preventative Interventions at Multiple Levels: A Study of African Immigrant Women Survivors of Cumulative Trauma

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African immigrant women survivors of cumulative trauma are at high risk for HIV infection. This study aims to identify survivors' perceptions of (a) contextual (i.e., community, and relationship) and individual-level risk and protective factors for HIV among African immigrant women in the United States and (b) areas and strategies of HIV prevention intervention at contextual and individual levels. Qualitative data for this study were collected from African-born women (n = 39) in Maryland, Virginia, and Washington, DC, from February 2017 to March 2018. Seventeen in-depth interviews and five focus groups were conducted with African immigrant survivors of cumulative trauma. Results revealed HIV prevention intervention needs and risk and protective factors for HIV at the community (e.g., community education), relationship (e.g., intimate partner violence, family), and individual (e.g., women's empowerment) levels. These findings can inform the development of culturally tailored multilevel HIV prevention interventions for African immigrant women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419-433
Number of pages15
JournalAIDS education and prevention : official publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2018



  • African immigrant
  • cumulative trauma
  • HIV
  • women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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