Several biomarkers of renal injury have been identified but the utility of these biomarkers is largely confined to research studies, whereas widespread clinical applicability is limited. This is partly because the use of serum creatinine as the comparator has several limitations and restricts the full interpretation of biomarker performance. To highlight the potential for clinical application of biomarkers, the most pertinent biomarker data are summarized here, using clinically relevant scenarios in which biomarkers could assist with diagnostic and management dilemmas. The paradigms proposed in this review aim to enhance the clinical diagnosis, management, and prognosis of AKI through the combined use of available clinicalmarkers and novel inflammatory, injury, and repair biomarkers.
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