Perioperative and long-term outcomes after carotid endarterectomy in hemodialysis patients

Michol Cooper, Isibor J. Arhuidese, Tammam Obeid, Caitlin Hicks, Joseph Canner, Mahmoud B. Malas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Importance: Early landmark trials excluding dialysis patients showed carotid endarterectomy (CEA) decreased stroke risk compared with medical management. Dialysis dependence has been associated with poor outcomes after CEA in small studies, but, to our knowledge, there are no large studies evaluating outcomes of CEA in this patient group. Objective: To delineate perioperative and long-term outcomes after CEA in dialysis-dependent patients in a large national database. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent CEA in the US Renal Disease System-Medicare-matched database between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, was performed in June 2015. The median follow-up time was 2.5 years. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate perioperative and long-term outcomes. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes of interestwere perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality, and long-term stroke and mortality. Results: A total of 5142 patients were studied; 83% of whom were asymptomatic. The mean (SD) age was 68.9 (9.6) years for asymptomatic patients and 70.0 (9.1) years for symptomatic patients. The 30-day stroke rate, myocardial infarction, and mortality for the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were 2.7% vs 5.2% (P = .001), 4.6% vs 5.0% (P = .69), and 2.6% vs 2.9% (P = .61), respectively. Predictors of perioperative stroke were symptomatic status (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% CI, 1.18-3.42; P = .01), black race (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.24-4.25; P = .008), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.17-4.42; P = .02). Freedom from stroke and overall survival were lower in symptomatic compared with asymptomatic patients at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years (in asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients, freedom from stroke rates were 92% vs 87% at 1 year, 88% vs 83% at 2 years, 84% vs 78% at 3 years, 80% vs 73% at 4 years, and 79% vs 69% at 5 years, respectively, and overall survival rates were 78% vs 73% at 1 year, 60% vs 57% at 2 years, 46% vs 42% at 3 years, 37% vs 32% at 4 years, and 33% vs 29% at 5 years; P < .05). Predictors of long-term stroke were preoperative symptoms (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.24-2.24; P < .001), female sex (hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.03-1.73; P = .04), and inability to ambulate (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.25-2.62; P = .002). Predictors of long-term mortality were increasing age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; P < .01), active smoking (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.00-1.48; P = .045), history of congestive heart failure (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.12-1.39; P < .001), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of dialysis patients who have undergone CEA. We have shown that the risks of CEA in asymptomatic patients is high and may outweigh the benefits. The risk of CEA in symptomatic patients is also high, and it should only be offered to a small carefully selected cohort of symptomatic patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)947-952
Number of pages6
JournalJAMA Surgery
Volume151
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016

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Carotid Endarterectomy
Renal Dialysis
Stroke
Odds Ratio
Dialysis
Mortality
Myocardial Infarction
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Databases
Sex Ratio
Medicare
Hispanic Americans
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Survival Rate
Heart Failure
Logistic Models
Smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Perioperative and long-term outcomes after carotid endarterectomy in hemodialysis patients. / Cooper, Michol; Arhuidese, Isibor J.; Obeid, Tammam; Hicks, Caitlin; Canner, Joseph; Malas, Mahmoud B.

In: JAMA Surgery, Vol. 151, No. 10, 01.10.2016, p. 947-952.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cooper, Michol ; Arhuidese, Isibor J. ; Obeid, Tammam ; Hicks, Caitlin ; Canner, Joseph ; Malas, Mahmoud B. / Perioperative and long-term outcomes after carotid endarterectomy in hemodialysis patients. In: JAMA Surgery. 2016 ; Vol. 151, No. 10. pp. 947-952.
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abstract = "Importance: Early landmark trials excluding dialysis patients showed carotid endarterectomy (CEA) decreased stroke risk compared with medical management. Dialysis dependence has been associated with poor outcomes after CEA in small studies, but, to our knowledge, there are no large studies evaluating outcomes of CEA in this patient group. Objective: To delineate perioperative and long-term outcomes after CEA in dialysis-dependent patients in a large national database. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent CEA in the US Renal Disease System-Medicare-matched database between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, was performed in June 2015. The median follow-up time was 2.5 years. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate perioperative and long-term outcomes. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes of interestwere perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality, and long-term stroke and mortality. Results: A total of 5142 patients were studied; 83{\%} of whom were asymptomatic. The mean (SD) age was 68.9 (9.6) years for asymptomatic patients and 70.0 (9.1) years for symptomatic patients. The 30-day stroke rate, myocardial infarction, and mortality for the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were 2.7{\%} vs 5.2{\%} (P = .001), 4.6{\%} vs 5.0{\%} (P = .69), and 2.6{\%} vs 2.9{\%} (P = .61), respectively. Predictors of perioperative stroke were symptomatic status (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95{\%} CI, 1.18-3.42; P = .01), black race (OR, 2.30; 95{\%} CI, 1.24-4.25; P = .008), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.28; 95{\%} CI, 1.17-4.42; P = .02). Freedom from stroke and overall survival were lower in symptomatic compared with asymptomatic patients at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years (in asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients, freedom from stroke rates were 92{\%} vs 87{\%} at 1 year, 88{\%} vs 83{\%} at 2 years, 84{\%} vs 78{\%} at 3 years, 80{\%} vs 73{\%} at 4 years, and 79{\%} vs 69{\%} at 5 years, respectively, and overall survival rates were 78{\%} vs 73{\%} at 1 year, 60{\%} vs 57{\%} at 2 years, 46{\%} vs 42{\%} at 3 years, 37{\%} vs 32{\%} at 4 years, and 33{\%} vs 29{\%} at 5 years; P < .05). Predictors of long-term stroke were preoperative symptoms (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95{\%} CI, 1.24-2.24; P < .001), female sex (hazard ratio, 1.34; 95{\%} CI, 1.03-1.73; P = .04), and inability to ambulate (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95{\%} CI, 1.25-2.62; P = .002). Predictors of long-term mortality were increasing age (OR, 1.02; 95{\%} CI, 1.01-1.03; P < .01), active smoking (OR, 1.22; 95{\%} CI, 1.00-1.48; P = .045), history of congestive heart failure (OR, 1.25; 95{\%} CI, 1.12-1.39; P < .001), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 1.26; 95{\%} CI, 1.09-1.45; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of dialysis patients who have undergone CEA. We have shown that the risks of CEA in asymptomatic patients is high and may outweigh the benefits. The risk of CEA in symptomatic patients is also high, and it should only be offered to a small carefully selected cohort of symptomatic patients.",
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T1 - Perioperative and long-term outcomes after carotid endarterectomy in hemodialysis patients

AU - Cooper, Michol

AU - Arhuidese, Isibor J.

AU - Obeid, Tammam

AU - Hicks, Caitlin

AU - Canner, Joseph

AU - Malas, Mahmoud B.

PY - 2016/10/1

Y1 - 2016/10/1

N2 - Importance: Early landmark trials excluding dialysis patients showed carotid endarterectomy (CEA) decreased stroke risk compared with medical management. Dialysis dependence has been associated with poor outcomes after CEA in small studies, but, to our knowledge, there are no large studies evaluating outcomes of CEA in this patient group. Objective: To delineate perioperative and long-term outcomes after CEA in dialysis-dependent patients in a large national database. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent CEA in the US Renal Disease System-Medicare-matched database between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, was performed in June 2015. The median follow-up time was 2.5 years. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate perioperative and long-term outcomes. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes of interestwere perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality, and long-term stroke and mortality. Results: A total of 5142 patients were studied; 83% of whom were asymptomatic. The mean (SD) age was 68.9 (9.6) years for asymptomatic patients and 70.0 (9.1) years for symptomatic patients. The 30-day stroke rate, myocardial infarction, and mortality for the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were 2.7% vs 5.2% (P = .001), 4.6% vs 5.0% (P = .69), and 2.6% vs 2.9% (P = .61), respectively. Predictors of perioperative stroke were symptomatic status (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% CI, 1.18-3.42; P = .01), black race (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.24-4.25; P = .008), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.17-4.42; P = .02). Freedom from stroke and overall survival were lower in symptomatic compared with asymptomatic patients at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years (in asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients, freedom from stroke rates were 92% vs 87% at 1 year, 88% vs 83% at 2 years, 84% vs 78% at 3 years, 80% vs 73% at 4 years, and 79% vs 69% at 5 years, respectively, and overall survival rates were 78% vs 73% at 1 year, 60% vs 57% at 2 years, 46% vs 42% at 3 years, 37% vs 32% at 4 years, and 33% vs 29% at 5 years; P < .05). Predictors of long-term stroke were preoperative symptoms (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.24-2.24; P < .001), female sex (hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.03-1.73; P = .04), and inability to ambulate (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.25-2.62; P = .002). Predictors of long-term mortality were increasing age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; P < .01), active smoking (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.00-1.48; P = .045), history of congestive heart failure (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.12-1.39; P < .001), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of dialysis patients who have undergone CEA. We have shown that the risks of CEA in asymptomatic patients is high and may outweigh the benefits. The risk of CEA in symptomatic patients is also high, and it should only be offered to a small carefully selected cohort of symptomatic patients.

AB - Importance: Early landmark trials excluding dialysis patients showed carotid endarterectomy (CEA) decreased stroke risk compared with medical management. Dialysis dependence has been associated with poor outcomes after CEA in small studies, but, to our knowledge, there are no large studies evaluating outcomes of CEA in this patient group. Objective: To delineate perioperative and long-term outcomes after CEA in dialysis-dependent patients in a large national database. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective review of all patients who underwent CEA in the US Renal Disease System-Medicare-matched database between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011, was performed in June 2015. The median follow-up time was 2.5 years. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to evaluate perioperative and long-term outcomes. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes of interestwere perioperative stroke, myocardial infarction and mortality, and long-term stroke and mortality. Results: A total of 5142 patients were studied; 83% of whom were asymptomatic. The mean (SD) age was 68.9 (9.6) years for asymptomatic patients and 70.0 (9.1) years for symptomatic patients. The 30-day stroke rate, myocardial infarction, and mortality for the asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were 2.7% vs 5.2% (P = .001), 4.6% vs 5.0% (P = .69), and 2.6% vs 2.9% (P = .61), respectively. Predictors of perioperative stroke were symptomatic status (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% CI, 1.18-3.42; P = .01), black race (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.24-4.25; P = .008), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.17-4.42; P = .02). Freedom from stroke and overall survival were lower in symptomatic compared with asymptomatic patients at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years (in asymptomatic vs symptomatic patients, freedom from stroke rates were 92% vs 87% at 1 year, 88% vs 83% at 2 years, 84% vs 78% at 3 years, 80% vs 73% at 4 years, and 79% vs 69% at 5 years, respectively, and overall survival rates were 78% vs 73% at 1 year, 60% vs 57% at 2 years, 46% vs 42% at 3 years, 37% vs 32% at 4 years, and 33% vs 29% at 5 years; P < .05). Predictors of long-term stroke were preoperative symptoms (hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.24-2.24; P < .001), female sex (hazard ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.03-1.73; P = .04), and inability to ambulate (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.25-2.62; P = .002). Predictors of long-term mortality were increasing age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03; P < .01), active smoking (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.00-1.48; P = .045), history of congestive heart failure (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.12-1.39; P < .001), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.09-1.45; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of dialysis patients who have undergone CEA. We have shown that the risks of CEA in asymptomatic patients is high and may outweigh the benefits. The risk of CEA in symptomatic patients is also high, and it should only be offered to a small carefully selected cohort of symptomatic patients.

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