Perinatal mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes in a low-income rural population of women who smoke

Jane A. Mcelroy, Tina Bloom, Kelly Moore, Beth Geden, Kevin Everett, Linda F. Bullock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


We describe adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, fetal, neonatal, and infant mortality among a Missouri population of low-income, rural mothers who participated in two randomized smoking cessation trials. In the Baby BEEP (BB) trial, 695 rural women were recruited from 21 WIC clinics with 650 women's pregnancy outcomes known (93.5% retention rate). Following the BB trial, 298 women who had a live infant after November 2004 were recruited again into and completed the Baby Beep for Kids (BBK) trial. Simple statistics describing the population and perinatal and postneonatal mortality rates were calculated. Of the adverse pregnancy outcomes (n = 79), 29% were spontaneous abortions of less than 20 weeks' gestation, 23% were premature births, and 49% were identified birth defects. The perinatal mortality rate was 15.9 per 1000 births (BB study) compared with 8.6 per 1000 births (state of Missouri) and 8.5 per 1000 births (United States). The postneonatal infant mortality rate was 13.4 per 1000 live births (BBK) compared with 2.1 per 1000 live births (United States). The health disparity in this population of impoverished, rural, pregnant women who smoke, particularly in regard to perinatal and infant deaths, warrants attention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)223-229
Number of pages7
JournalBirth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Adverse pregnancy outcomes
  • Low-income
  • Perinatal mortality
  • Rural women
  • Smokers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Embryology
  • Developmental Biology


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