One hundred and fifty-four kindergarten children were given a battery of color tasks including color vision (pseudo-isochromatic plates and yarn sorting and matching), intra-verbal (answering questions involving color names conventionally associated with certain items), and associative (pointing to colors and naming colors, first untimed and then repeatedly and rapidly). A small nursery school group (N = 16, mean age 59.3 months) was also tested. Most were found to be highly competent in all three types of color tasks. 78% of the kindergarten children named the 50-stimulus color chart in less than 95 seconds with fewer than 3 errors and made no more than one error in answering 8 questions requiring a color name. Of greatest interest were 9 children (6%) who were neither color-blind nor verbally unfamiliar with color names but were unusually hesitant and inconsistent in color-naming. Only one child, because of “point-to” errors and spectacular color-naming difficulty, resembled the picture of “visual disconnexion syndrome,” as discussed by Geschwind (1966). Rapid color-naming norms established for kindergarten children (70 months, S.D. ± 5) by this study for the test available in the Mental Examiner's Handbook (Wells and Ruesch, 1945) are mean time 70 seconds (S.D. ± 24), mean errors 2 (S.D. ± 1.2).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Cognitive Neuroscience