Performance of an iPad Application to Detect Moderate and Advanced Visual Field Loss in Nepal

Chris A. Johnson, Suman Thapa, Yu Xiang George Kong, Alan L. Robin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose To evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of Visual Fields Easy (VFE), a free iPad app, for performing suprathreshold perimetric screening. Design Prospective, cross-sectional validation study. Methods We performed screening visual fields using a calibrated iPad 2 with the VFE application on 206 subjects (411 eyes): 210 normal (NL), 183 glaucoma (GL), and 18 diabetic retinopathy (DR) at Tilganga Institute of Ophthalmology, Kathmandu, Nepal. We correlated the results with a Humphrey Field Analyzer using 24-2 SITA Standard tests on 373 of these eyes (198 NL, 160 GL, 15 DR). Results The number of missed locations on the VFE correlated with mean deviation (MD, r = 0.79), pattern standard deviation (PSD, r = 0.60), and number of locations that were worse than the 95% confidence limits for total deviation (r = 0.51) and pattern deviation (r = 0.68) using SITA Standard. iPad suprathreshold perimetry was able to detect most visual field deficits with moderate (MD of −6 to −12 dB) and advanced (MD worse than −12 dB) loss, but had greater difficulty in detecting early (MD better than −6 dB) loss, primarily owing to an elevated false-positive response rate. The average time to perform the Visual Fields Easy test was 3 minutes, 18 seconds (standard deviation = 16.88 seconds). Discussion The Visual Fields Easy test procedure is a portable, fast, effective procedure for detecting moderate and advanced visual field loss. Improvements are currently underway to monitor eye and head tracking during testing, reduce testing time, improve performance, and eliminate the need to touch the video screen surface.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)147-154
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican journal of ophthalmology
StatePublished - Oct 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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