Macrophage activation and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production are critical in tuberculosis immunity but may result in increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) expression and accelerated HIV disease progression in HIV-infected persons. Pentoxifylline inhibits expression of TNF-α and HIV. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of adjunctive therapy with pentoxifylline (1800 mg/day) as a timed-release formulation was done in Ugandan HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Subjects had early HIV disease (mean CD4 cell count, 380/μL) and did not receive other antiretroviral drugs. Pentoxifylline resulted in decreased plasma HIV RNA and serum β2-microglobulin and, in a subset of moderately anemic patients, improved blood hemoglobin levels. Trends were noted toward reduced TNF-α production in vitro and improved performance scores, but these did not reach statistical significance. No effect was noted on body mass, CD4 cell count, or survival. Additional studies of more potent TNF-α inhibitors in HIV-positive subjects with tuberculosis are warranted.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Infectious Diseases|
|State||Published - 1996|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health