Penile Transplantation: Lessons Learned and Technical Considerations

Isabel V. Lake, Alisa O. Girard, Christopher D. Lopez, Damon S. Cooney, Arthur L. Burnett, Gerald Brandacher, Byoung Chol Oh, Richard J. Redett

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose: Penile vascularized composite allotransplantation is a powerful tool for penile reconstruction. Traditional methods of reconstruction utilizing free tissue and prostheses have well-known complications, can require reoperation and cannot truly emulate the natural form or function of the penis. While vascularized composite allotransplantation may alleviate these difficulties, penile transplantation carries its own ethical, surgical and medical complications. To date, the procedure has only been attempted 5 times. Broader use of this procedure requires unique surgical considerations. We present the first comprehensive, detailed review of this procedure in order to present lessons learned from both our own and the global experience. Materials and Methods: A review of published reports of penile transplant methods and outcomes was conducted to compile lessons learned from these cases. Results: Five penile transplant cases have been reported in literature, 4 with published methodology and outcomes data. All 4 detailed unique surgical approaches and postoperative immunosuppressive regimens. Three of these cases resulted in successful sensory and functional outcomes. Conclusions: Though all 4 analyzed cases employed unique anastomotic and immunosuppressive approaches, 3 resulted in successful recovery of penile urinary and sexual function. Still, specific approaches used by different teams circumvented otherwise common complications, and these differences should guide future research and penile transplant cases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)960-968
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2022


  • microsurgery
  • penis
  • transplantation
  • vascularized composite allotransplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of 'Penile Transplantation: Lessons Learned and Technical Considerations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this