SUMMARY Reading difficulties are common in the pediatric population, and large socioeconomic disparities exist. In the United States 46% of white children achieved expected reading proficiency by the end of fourth grade, while only 21% of Hispanic and 18% of African American children were reading at the expected level. Reading is an involved cognitive process with many subskills; likewise, development of reading proficiency is a complex and continuous process. Failure to achieve reading proficiency or even early difficulty with reading can affect a child's academic performance for years to come. Some studies suggest reading proficiency may be related to later success in life. Although many problems with reading are not related to vision, a vision assessment is recommended for children with reading difficulties and a suspected vision problem. The process of reading development as well as the varied educational assessments of reading are presented here for pediatric ophthalmologists.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health