Minimally invasive procedures play a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of many pediatric musculoskeletal conditions. Although computed tomography and fluoroscopy are commonly used for image guidance, the associated exposure to ionizing radiation is especially concerning in pediatric patients. Ultrasonography may be used successfully in a subset of interventions, but it is often not useful for complex, deep, and osseous targets. Interventional magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) facilitates targeting and treatment of musculoskeletal lesions at many locations with high accuracy due to its excellent tissue contrast. Furthermore, MRI provides imaging guidance without the use of ionizing radiation and as such complies with the ALARA practice mandate in a formidable fashion. MRI guidance is our method of choice for lesion that are not visible by other modalities or when other techniques and modalities failed. MRI guidance is especially useful for selective targeting of complex lesions, intra-articular lesions, cyst aspirations in difficult locations of the body, and lesions that are located adjacent to surgical hardware. Tumor-related diagnostic sampling is more frequently performed under MRI; however, MRI guidance is also exquisitely well suited for a variety of therapeutic percutaneous osseous or articular conditions, such as osteoid osteoma, epiphyseal bone bridging, osteochondritis dissecans lesions, and aneurysmal bone cysts. In this article, we will describe the technical aspects and clinical indications of a variety of MRI-guided pediatric procedures in the musculoskeletal system.
- bone cyst
- osteochondritis dissecans
- osteoid osteoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging