Patterns of fetal perinasal fluid flow in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia

H. E. Fox, S. S. Badalian, W. P. Fifer, M. Ross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVE(S): Our purpose was to expand the previous reported series of observations of fetal perinasal fluid flow in cases of antenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia, characterize the timing parameters of the fetal breath cycle, and define the relationship of fetal perinasal fluid flow and the diaphragmatic component of fetal breathing movements. Our hypothesis was that characteristics of diaphragm-related and nondiaphragm-related perinasal fluid flow and other breath cycle characteristics differ in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia compared with controls. STUDY DESIGN: Fetal perinasal fluid flow velocity and fetal chest wall movements were studied in 24 cases of uncomplicated pregnancy, and flow was studied in 24 cases of antenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia at gestational ages ranging from 30 to 41 weeks. The examination of fetal perinasal fluid flow velocity was performed with use of an ultrasonography system applying color flow and spectral Doppler analysis. Breath-to-breath interval, time of inspiration, time of expiration, and peak inspiratory and expiratory velocities were determined for each type of perinasal flow. RESULTS: The study revealed that the time of expiration in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia at 30 to 36 and 37 to 41 weeks of gestation was significantly shorter than in cases of uncomplicated pregnancy. The ratio of time of inspiration and breath-to-breath interval in cases of diaphragmatic hernia was approximately 30% higher (p = 0.001) at 30 to 36 weeks of gestation than in cases of uncomplicated pregnancy. The study also showed that in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia the expiratory peak velocity ratio at 30 to 36 weeks of gestation was significantly lower than in cases of uncomplicated pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that by Doppler ultrasonography measurements of fetal perinasal fluid flow, in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, we can evaluate the timing parameters of fetal diaphragm-related breath cycles, the relationship of intraalveolar and intraamniotic pressures, and fetal upper respiratory tract resistance. Fetuses with diaphragmatic hernia spent significantly more time with diaphragm-nonrelated perinasal flow than did fetuses in cases of uncomplicated pregnancy, which can cause the increased loss of lung liquid and consequently be associated with pulmonary insufficiency in the early neonatal period.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)807-813
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume176
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1997

Fingerprint

Pregnancy
Diaphragm
Diaphragmatic Hernia
Fetus
Doppler Ultrasonography
Fetal Movement
Lung
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernias
Thoracic Wall
Respiratory System
Gestational Age
Ultrasonography
Respiration
Color
Pressure

Keywords

  • diaphragmatic hernia
  • Doppler imaging
  • fetal breathing movements
  • perinasal flow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Cite this

Patterns of fetal perinasal fluid flow in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. / Fox, H. E.; Badalian, S. S.; Fifer, W. P.; Ross, M.

In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol. 176, No. 4, 1997, p. 807-813.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Fox, H. E. ; Badalian, S. S. ; Fifer, W. P. ; Ross, M. / Patterns of fetal perinasal fluid flow in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 1997 ; Vol. 176, No. 4. pp. 807-813.
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abstract = "OBJECTIVE(S): Our purpose was to expand the previous reported series of observations of fetal perinasal fluid flow in cases of antenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia, characterize the timing parameters of the fetal breath cycle, and define the relationship of fetal perinasal fluid flow and the diaphragmatic component of fetal breathing movements. Our hypothesis was that characteristics of diaphragm-related and nondiaphragm-related perinasal fluid flow and other breath cycle characteristics differ in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia compared with controls. STUDY DESIGN: Fetal perinasal fluid flow velocity and fetal chest wall movements were studied in 24 cases of uncomplicated pregnancy, and flow was studied in 24 cases of antenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia at gestational ages ranging from 30 to 41 weeks. The examination of fetal perinasal fluid flow velocity was performed with use of an ultrasonography system applying color flow and spectral Doppler analysis. Breath-to-breath interval, time of inspiration, time of expiration, and peak inspiratory and expiratory velocities were determined for each type of perinasal flow. RESULTS: The study revealed that the time of expiration in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia at 30 to 36 and 37 to 41 weeks of gestation was significantly shorter than in cases of uncomplicated pregnancy. The ratio of time of inspiration and breath-to-breath interval in cases of diaphragmatic hernia was approximately 30{\%} higher (p = 0.001) at 30 to 36 weeks of gestation than in cases of uncomplicated pregnancy. The study also showed that in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia the expiratory peak velocity ratio at 30 to 36 weeks of gestation was significantly lower than in cases of uncomplicated pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that by Doppler ultrasonography measurements of fetal perinasal fluid flow, in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, we can evaluate the timing parameters of fetal diaphragm-related breath cycles, the relationship of intraalveolar and intraamniotic pressures, and fetal upper respiratory tract resistance. Fetuses with diaphragmatic hernia spent significantly more time with diaphragm-nonrelated perinasal flow than did fetuses in cases of uncomplicated pregnancy, which can cause the increased loss of lung liquid and consequently be associated with pulmonary insufficiency in the early neonatal period.",
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AB - OBJECTIVE(S): Our purpose was to expand the previous reported series of observations of fetal perinasal fluid flow in cases of antenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia, characterize the timing parameters of the fetal breath cycle, and define the relationship of fetal perinasal fluid flow and the diaphragmatic component of fetal breathing movements. Our hypothesis was that characteristics of diaphragm-related and nondiaphragm-related perinasal fluid flow and other breath cycle characteristics differ in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia compared with controls. STUDY DESIGN: Fetal perinasal fluid flow velocity and fetal chest wall movements were studied in 24 cases of uncomplicated pregnancy, and flow was studied in 24 cases of antenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia at gestational ages ranging from 30 to 41 weeks. The examination of fetal perinasal fluid flow velocity was performed with use of an ultrasonography system applying color flow and spectral Doppler analysis. Breath-to-breath interval, time of inspiration, time of expiration, and peak inspiratory and expiratory velocities were determined for each type of perinasal flow. RESULTS: The study revealed that the time of expiration in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia at 30 to 36 and 37 to 41 weeks of gestation was significantly shorter than in cases of uncomplicated pregnancy. The ratio of time of inspiration and breath-to-breath interval in cases of diaphragmatic hernia was approximately 30% higher (p = 0.001) at 30 to 36 weeks of gestation than in cases of uncomplicated pregnancy. The study also showed that in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia the expiratory peak velocity ratio at 30 to 36 weeks of gestation was significantly lower than in cases of uncomplicated pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that by Doppler ultrasonography measurements of fetal perinasal fluid flow, in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, we can evaluate the timing parameters of fetal diaphragm-related breath cycles, the relationship of intraalveolar and intraamniotic pressures, and fetal upper respiratory tract resistance. Fetuses with diaphragmatic hernia spent significantly more time with diaphragm-nonrelated perinasal flow than did fetuses in cases of uncomplicated pregnancy, which can cause the increased loss of lung liquid and consequently be associated with pulmonary insufficiency in the early neonatal period.

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