Objective: To investigate longitudinal associations of health beliefs, which included self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and perceived barriers, and demographic risk factors (i.e., age, gender, race, and family income) with antihypertensive medication adherence in adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD) over 24 months. Method: The sample included 114 adolescents (M age = 15.03 years, SD = 2.44) diagnosed with CKD. Adolescents reported their self-efficacy for taking medications, medication outcome expectancies, and barriers to adherence at baseline and 12 and 24 months after baseline. Antihypertensive medication adherence was assessed via electronic monitoring for 2 weeks at baseline and 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after baseline. Results: Adherence increased and then decreased over the 2-year study period (inverted U-shape). Self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and barriers did not change over time. Older adolescent age, female gender, African American race, <$50,000 annual family income, and public health insurance were associated with lower adherence. However, family income was the primary demographic risk factor that predicted adherence over time (≥$50,000 annual family income was longitudinally associated with higher adherence). Higher self-efficacy and more positive and less negative outcome expectancies across time were also associated with higher antihypertensive medication adherence across time. Conclusions: Clinical interventions should be developed to target medication self-efficacy and outcome expectancies to improve long-term antihypertensive medication adherence in adolescents with CKD. Family income may be considered when conceptualizing contextual factors that likely contribute to adolescents' consistent challenges with medication adherence over time.
- chronic illness
- health behavior
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Developmental and Educational Psychology