Despite major advances in mechanical and pharmacological reperfusion strategies to improve acute myocardial infarction (MI) injury, substantial mortality, morbidity, and socioeconomic burden still exists. To further reduce infarct size and thus ameliorate clinical outcome, the focus has also shifted towards early detection of MI with high-sensitive troponin assays, imaging, cardioprotection against pathophysiological targets of myocardial reperfusion injury with mechanical (ischaemic post-conditioning, remote ischaemic pre-conditioning, therapeutic hypothermia, and hypoxemia) and newer pharmacological interventions (atrial natriuretic peptide, cyclosporine A, and exenatide). Evidence from animal models of myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion also demonstrated promising results on more selective anti-inflammatory compounds that require additional validation in humans. Cardiac stem cell treatment also hold promise to reduce infarct size and negative remodelling of the left ventricle that may further improves symptoms and prognosis in these patients. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, detection, and reperfusion strategies of ST-segment elevation MI as well as current and future challenges to reduce ischaemia/reperfusion injury and infarct size that may result in a further improved outcome in these patients.
- Acute myocardial infarction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine