Pathophysiology of Hypertensive Retinopathy

Mark O.M. Tso, Lee M. Jampol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The effects of systemic hypertension on the posterior segment of the eye are discussed under the headings of hypertensive choroidopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, and hypertensive optic disc edema. The sympathetic nervous control and autoregulatory mechanisms of the retinal and chorodial vasculatures are briefly reviewed. In hypertensive choroidopathy focal occlusion of choriocapillaris leads to necrosis of retinal pigment epithelium (Elschnig spots). Hypertensive retinopathy is described in vasoconstrictive, exudative, and sclerotic phases, followed by complications of the sclerotic phase. Hypertensive optic disc edema is influenced by the blood supply and extracellular tissue fluid pressure of the optic nervehead. In baboons with hypertensive disc edema, accumulation of axoplasmic components is observed in the optic nervehead.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1132-1145
Number of pages14
JournalOphthalmology
Volume89
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1982

Keywords

  • axoplasmic transport
  • blood-retinal barrier
  • choriocapillaris
  • hypertensive choroidopathy
  • hypertensive optic disc edema
  • hypertensive retinopathy
  • retinal blood vessels

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology

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