Thirteen pairs of baboons underwent left lung allografts and treatment on either a low or a high dose regimen of azathioprine and methyl prednisolone. Animals survived up to 31 days. Pathologic studies showed that graft rejection, including vasculitis, could be effectively controlled. There was a high incidence of severe necrotizing pulmonary infections with the larger doses of immunosuppressive agents. Thrombosis at the arterial anastomosis leading to pulmonary infarction occurred in animals in both groups. Inflammatory reactions due to lung parasites must be distinguished from graft rejection in baboons. The overall results suggest that long term success with lung transplantation is possible with control of the complications of treatment.
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