Background: To evaluate possible monogenic and chromosomal anomalies in a patient with unilateral Duane retraction syndrome, modest dysmorphism, cerebral white matter abnormalities, and normal cognitive function. Materials and Methods: Performing high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and sequencing of HOXA1, KIF21A, SALL4, and CHN1 genes. Results: The proband had unilateral Duane retraction syndrome (DRS) type III on the right with low-set ears, prominent forehead, clinodactyly, and a history of frequent infections during early childhood. Motor development and cognitive function were normal. Parents were not related, and no other family member was similarly affected. MRI revealed multiple small areas of high signal on T2 weighted images in cerebral white matter oriented along white matter tracts. Sequencing of HOXA1, KIF21A, SALL4, and CHN1 did not reveal any mutation(s). Array CGH showed a 95 Kb de novo duplication on chromosome 19q13.4 encompassing four killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes. Conclusions. KIR genes have not previously been linked to a developmental syndrome, although they are known to be expressed in the human brain and brainstem and to be associated with certain infections and autoimmune diseases, including some affecting the nervous system. DRS and brain neuroimaging abnormalities may imply a central and peripheral oligodendrocyte abnormality related in some fashion to an immunomodulatory disturbance.
- Duane retraction syndrome
- KIR gene
- Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor
- Low-set ears
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health