Parents’ preferences for interventions to improve childhood immunization uptake in northern Nigeria

Sachiko Ozawa, Mo Zhou, Chizoba Wonodi, Hui Han Chen, John F.P. Bridges

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Routine childhood immunization coverage has been low in northern Nigeria. While local authorities and international partners have been working hard to improve coverage, population preferences for interventions have not been documented. This study aimed to understand parents’ preferences and identify possible interventions to improve uptake of childhood immunization. Methods: Preferences for immunization interventions were elicited using a best-worst scaling (BWS) instrument among parents with children under five. We explored the value of six program attributes (each varying across three levels) identified through a literature review and engagement with local stakeholders. In each of 18 hypothetical programs identified through a main effect orthogonal design, respondents selected the best and worst attributes that may facilitate vaccination of children. Assuming sequential best-worst responses, we used conditional logit to estimate preferences. We employed latent class analysis (LCA) to categorize and examine respondents’ preferences across interventions. Results: 97 men and 101 women in 198 households were surveyed. The most preferred level for each attribute included door-to-door vaccinations, free food supplements, bundling with nutritional support programs, involvement of religious leaders, information dissemination through media campaigns, and strengthening of health services by the government. Three types of preferences were recognized in the LCA. The value-driven group (14%) characterized by youngest age, predominantly female, and lower education perceived bundled services with food and nutritional programs as the most important feature of an intervention. Convenience and information seekers (28%) characterized by oldest age and the lowest employment preferred door-to-door vaccinations and media campaigns. The remaining complacent group (58%), characterized by highest education and highest employment, did not show strong preferences to any intervention compared to the other two groups. Conclusions: Routine immunization programs should consider joining forces with food and nutritional programs to improve vaccination uptake. Incorporating door-to-door visits and media campaigns to target older and unemployed populations may increase childhood immunization uptake in northern Nigeria.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2833-2841
Number of pages9
Issue number20
StatePublished - May 11 2018


  • Best-worst scaling
  • Immunization
  • Latent class analysis
  • Nigeria
  • Preferences
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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