Parenteral Nutrition

S. Devi Rampertab, A. K. Fischer, Gerard Mullin

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Nutritional support refers to the provision of nutrients to individuals who are unable to maintain adequate nutritional status due to derangements in nutritional intake, malabsorption, or altered metabolism. The nutrition assessment process is a critical step in identifying patients who are at nutritional risk. It incorporates both subjective (medical and nutrition histories) as well as objective (physical examination, anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests, etc.) parameters to determine those in whom nutritional support would be beneficial. Nutritional support can be in the form of oral, enteral, or parenteral administration of nutrients. Enteral nutrition allows nourishment via a liquid diet formulation and is accomplished through a tube placed in the upper gastrointestinal tract (i.e., nasogastric, gastrostomy, nasointestinal, and jejunostomy). Parenteral nutrition, which is a compounded formulation of crystalline amino acids, dextrose, fats, electrolytes, vitamins, and minerals, is utilized in situations where the gastrointestinal tract is not functioning or cannot be accessed or in those cases where adequate nutrition cannot be attained by enteral or oral means alone. The advent of parenteral nutrition has revolutionized the management of very ill patients who are unable to maintain adequate nutritional intake. The purpose of this article is to review the indications and contraindications of parenteral nutrition for adult nutritional support, to describe the individual components utilized in formulating parenteral nutrition, to identify complications associated with parenteral nutrition, and to review important elements in the implementation and monitoring of parenteral nutrition, which are necessary to promote safe and effective utilization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Human Nutrition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Pages14-20
Number of pages7
Volume4-4
ISBN (Electronic)9780123848857
ISBN (Print)9780123750839
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2012

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Parenteral Nutrition
Nutritional Support
Small Intestine
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Jejunostomy
Food
Nutrition Assessment
Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Gastrostomy
Enteral Nutrition
Nutritional Status
Vitamins
Electrolytes
Physical Examination
Minerals
Gastrointestinal Tract
Fats
Diet
Amino Acids
Glucose

Keywords

  • Complications
  • Contraindications
  • Essential nutrients
  • Gastrointestinal tract
  • Nutritional support

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Devi Rampertab, S., Fischer, A. K., & Mullin, G. (2012). Parenteral Nutrition. In Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Vol. 4-4, pp. 14-20). Elsevier Inc.. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-375083-9.00204-X

Parenteral Nutrition. / Devi Rampertab, S.; Fischer, A. K.; Mullin, Gerard.

Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition. Vol. 4-4 Elsevier Inc., 2012. p. 14-20.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Devi Rampertab, S, Fischer, AK & Mullin, G 2012, Parenteral Nutrition. in Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition. vol. 4-4, Elsevier Inc., pp. 14-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-375083-9.00204-X
Devi Rampertab S, Fischer AK, Mullin G. Parenteral Nutrition. In Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition. Vol. 4-4. Elsevier Inc. 2012. p. 14-20 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-375083-9.00204-X
Devi Rampertab, S. ; Fischer, A. K. ; Mullin, Gerard. / Parenteral Nutrition. Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition. Vol. 4-4 Elsevier Inc., 2012. pp. 14-20
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