Parent-child bonding and family functioning in depressed children and children at high risk and low risk for future depression

Daniel Stein, Douglas E. Williamson, Boris Birmaher, David A. Brent, Joan Kaufman, Ronald E. Dahl, James M. Perel, Neal D. Ryan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate parent-child bonding and familial functioning in depressed children, children at high risk for depression, and low-risk controls. Method: Diagnoses of children and their relatives were obtained via structured interviews with all available informants. Depressed children (n = 54) received a diagnosis of current major depressive disorder (MDD). The high-risk children (n = 21) had no lifetime diagnoses of mood disorders, but at least one first-degree relative with a lifetime history of depression. The low-risk controls (n = 23) had no lifetime psychiatric disorders and no first-degree relative with a lifetime history of mood disorders. Parent-child bonding was evaluated with the child's report on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Familial functioning was evaluated with each parent answering the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Results: Significant differences were found between the MDD and low-risk children on most parameters of the PBI and FAD. The children with MDD reported significantly elevated maternal overprotection, and their fathers scored significantly lower on the FAD scales of Behavioral Control and General Functioning, compared with the high-risk children. Mothers of high-risk children had significantly lower scores on the Roles and Affective Involvement dimensions of the FAD compared with mothers of low-risk children. Current maternal depression had a deleterious effect on the child's perception of maternal protection and paternal care, mother's report on all FAD scales, and father's report on most FAD scales, whether interacting with the child's depression or existing even if the child was not depressed. Conclusion: Maternal depression and its interaction with the child's depression appear to have negative consequences for parent-child bonding and family functioning.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1387-1395
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume39
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2000

Fingerprint

Depression
Mothers
Equipment and Supplies
Major Depressive Disorder
Object Attachment
Mood Disorders
Fathers
Psychiatry
Interviews

Keywords

  • Depression
  • Family functioning
  • Parental bonding

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Parent-child bonding and family functioning in depressed children and children at high risk and low risk for future depression. / Stein, Daniel; Williamson, Douglas E.; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.; Kaufman, Joan; Dahl, Ronald E.; Perel, James M.; Ryan, Neal D.

In: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 39, No. 11, 2000, p. 1387-1395.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Stein, Daniel ; Williamson, Douglas E. ; Birmaher, Boris ; Brent, David A. ; Kaufman, Joan ; Dahl, Ronald E. ; Perel, James M. ; Ryan, Neal D. / Parent-child bonding and family functioning in depressed children and children at high risk and low risk for future depression. In: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2000 ; Vol. 39, No. 11. pp. 1387-1395.
@article{dc982e29b6bc4d2fa33650110849768b,
title = "Parent-child bonding and family functioning in depressed children and children at high risk and low risk for future depression",
abstract = "Objective: To evaluate parent-child bonding and familial functioning in depressed children, children at high risk for depression, and low-risk controls. Method: Diagnoses of children and their relatives were obtained via structured interviews with all available informants. Depressed children (n = 54) received a diagnosis of current major depressive disorder (MDD). The high-risk children (n = 21) had no lifetime diagnoses of mood disorders, but at least one first-degree relative with a lifetime history of depression. The low-risk controls (n = 23) had no lifetime psychiatric disorders and no first-degree relative with a lifetime history of mood disorders. Parent-child bonding was evaluated with the child's report on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Familial functioning was evaluated with each parent answering the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Results: Significant differences were found between the MDD and low-risk children on most parameters of the PBI and FAD. The children with MDD reported significantly elevated maternal overprotection, and their fathers scored significantly lower on the FAD scales of Behavioral Control and General Functioning, compared with the high-risk children. Mothers of high-risk children had significantly lower scores on the Roles and Affective Involvement dimensions of the FAD compared with mothers of low-risk children. Current maternal depression had a deleterious effect on the child's perception of maternal protection and paternal care, mother's report on all FAD scales, and father's report on most FAD scales, whether interacting with the child's depression or existing even if the child was not depressed. Conclusion: Maternal depression and its interaction with the child's depression appear to have negative consequences for parent-child bonding and family functioning.",
keywords = "Depression, Family functioning, Parental bonding",
author = "Daniel Stein and Williamson, {Douglas E.} and Boris Birmaher and Brent, {David A.} and Joan Kaufman and Dahl, {Ronald E.} and Perel, {James M.} and Ryan, {Neal D.}",
year = "2000",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "39",
pages = "1387--1395",
journal = "Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry",
issn = "0890-8567",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Parent-child bonding and family functioning in depressed children and children at high risk and low risk for future depression

AU - Stein, Daniel

AU - Williamson, Douglas E.

AU - Birmaher, Boris

AU - Brent, David A.

AU - Kaufman, Joan

AU - Dahl, Ronald E.

AU - Perel, James M.

AU - Ryan, Neal D.

PY - 2000

Y1 - 2000

N2 - Objective: To evaluate parent-child bonding and familial functioning in depressed children, children at high risk for depression, and low-risk controls. Method: Diagnoses of children and their relatives were obtained via structured interviews with all available informants. Depressed children (n = 54) received a diagnosis of current major depressive disorder (MDD). The high-risk children (n = 21) had no lifetime diagnoses of mood disorders, but at least one first-degree relative with a lifetime history of depression. The low-risk controls (n = 23) had no lifetime psychiatric disorders and no first-degree relative with a lifetime history of mood disorders. Parent-child bonding was evaluated with the child's report on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Familial functioning was evaluated with each parent answering the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Results: Significant differences were found between the MDD and low-risk children on most parameters of the PBI and FAD. The children with MDD reported significantly elevated maternal overprotection, and their fathers scored significantly lower on the FAD scales of Behavioral Control and General Functioning, compared with the high-risk children. Mothers of high-risk children had significantly lower scores on the Roles and Affective Involvement dimensions of the FAD compared with mothers of low-risk children. Current maternal depression had a deleterious effect on the child's perception of maternal protection and paternal care, mother's report on all FAD scales, and father's report on most FAD scales, whether interacting with the child's depression or existing even if the child was not depressed. Conclusion: Maternal depression and its interaction with the child's depression appear to have negative consequences for parent-child bonding and family functioning.

AB - Objective: To evaluate parent-child bonding and familial functioning in depressed children, children at high risk for depression, and low-risk controls. Method: Diagnoses of children and their relatives were obtained via structured interviews with all available informants. Depressed children (n = 54) received a diagnosis of current major depressive disorder (MDD). The high-risk children (n = 21) had no lifetime diagnoses of mood disorders, but at least one first-degree relative with a lifetime history of depression. The low-risk controls (n = 23) had no lifetime psychiatric disorders and no first-degree relative with a lifetime history of mood disorders. Parent-child bonding was evaluated with the child's report on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Familial functioning was evaluated with each parent answering the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Results: Significant differences were found between the MDD and low-risk children on most parameters of the PBI and FAD. The children with MDD reported significantly elevated maternal overprotection, and their fathers scored significantly lower on the FAD scales of Behavioral Control and General Functioning, compared with the high-risk children. Mothers of high-risk children had significantly lower scores on the Roles and Affective Involvement dimensions of the FAD compared with mothers of low-risk children. Current maternal depression had a deleterious effect on the child's perception of maternal protection and paternal care, mother's report on all FAD scales, and father's report on most FAD scales, whether interacting with the child's depression or existing even if the child was not depressed. Conclusion: Maternal depression and its interaction with the child's depression appear to have negative consequences for parent-child bonding and family functioning.

KW - Depression

KW - Family functioning

KW - Parental bonding

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033785879&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033785879&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 11068894

AN - SCOPUS:0033785879

VL - 39

SP - 1387

EP - 1395

JO - Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

JF - Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

SN - 0890-8567

IS - 11

ER -