Paraneoplastic pemphigus in association with Castleman's disease

O. V. Nikolskaia, C. H. Nousari, Grant James Anhalt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is an autoimmune mucocutaneous disease associated with lymphoproliferative neoplasms, and frequently with a very rare tumour, Castleman's disease. Objectives: To analyse the clinical history, immunopathological and histopathological findings in 28 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PNP and Castleman's disease. Methods: Sera from all patients were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and immunoprecipitation (IP) for plakin autoantibodies, immunoblotting for detection of plectin autoantibodies, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of desmoglein (Dsg)1 and Dsg3 autoantibodies. Results: Severe oral mucositis was observed in all patients, and lichenoid cutaneous lesions were seen in 19 of 28. Twenty cases of Castleman's disease were of the hyaline vascular type, four were of plasmacytoid type and four were of mixed type. Striking findings included pulmonary destruction leading to bronchiolitis obliterans in 26 patients and fatal outcome due to respiratory failure in 22 patients with pulmonary involvement. Histological findings included lichenoid and interface dermatitis with variable intraepithelial acantholysis. Direct IF showed deposition of IgG and C3 in the mouth and skin in 24 of 28 patients. However, indirect IF detected serum IgG autoantibodies in all patients. IP revealed IgG autoantibodies against desmoplakin I, envoplakin and periplakin in all cases, and against desmoplakin II and the 170-kDa antigen in 19 patients. Dsg3 and Dsg1 autoantibodies were present in 22 and 11 patients, respectively, and plectin autoantibodies in 23 patients. Conclusions: PNP in association with Castleman's disease presents with severe oral mucositis and cutaneous lichenoid lesions. Serum autoantibodies against plakin proteins are the most diagnostic markers. Pulmonary injury with respiratory failure is the cause of death in most cases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1143-1151
Number of pages9
JournalBritish Journal of Dermatology
Volume149
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2003

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Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia
Pemphigus
Autoantibodies
Plectin
Desmoplakins
Stomatitis
Immunoglobulin G
Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Immunoprecipitation
Respiratory Insufficiency
Skin
Desmoglein 1
Serum
Acantholysis
Bronchiolitis Obliterans
Direct Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Lung
Hyalin
Fatal Outcome
Lung Injury

Keywords

  • Bronchiolitis obliterans
  • Castleman's disease
  • Lichenoid dermatitis
  • Paraneoplastic syndrome
  • Pemphigus
  • Plakin protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology

Cite this

Paraneoplastic pemphigus in association with Castleman's disease. / Nikolskaia, O. V.; Nousari, C. H.; Anhalt, Grant James.

In: British Journal of Dermatology, Vol. 149, No. 6, 12.2003, p. 1143-1151.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nikolskaia, O. V. ; Nousari, C. H. ; Anhalt, Grant James. / Paraneoplastic pemphigus in association with Castleman's disease. In: British Journal of Dermatology. 2003 ; Vol. 149, No. 6. pp. 1143-1151.
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abstract = "Background: Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is an autoimmune mucocutaneous disease associated with lymphoproliferative neoplasms, and frequently with a very rare tumour, Castleman's disease. Objectives: To analyse the clinical history, immunopathological and histopathological findings in 28 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PNP and Castleman's disease. Methods: Sera from all patients were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and immunoprecipitation (IP) for plakin autoantibodies, immunoblotting for detection of plectin autoantibodies, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of desmoglein (Dsg)1 and Dsg3 autoantibodies. Results: Severe oral mucositis was observed in all patients, and lichenoid cutaneous lesions were seen in 19 of 28. Twenty cases of Castleman's disease were of the hyaline vascular type, four were of plasmacytoid type and four were of mixed type. Striking findings included pulmonary destruction leading to bronchiolitis obliterans in 26 patients and fatal outcome due to respiratory failure in 22 patients with pulmonary involvement. Histological findings included lichenoid and interface dermatitis with variable intraepithelial acantholysis. Direct IF showed deposition of IgG and C3 in the mouth and skin in 24 of 28 patients. However, indirect IF detected serum IgG autoantibodies in all patients. IP revealed IgG autoantibodies against desmoplakin I, envoplakin and periplakin in all cases, and against desmoplakin II and the 170-kDa antigen in 19 patients. Dsg3 and Dsg1 autoantibodies were present in 22 and 11 patients, respectively, and plectin autoantibodies in 23 patients. Conclusions: PNP in association with Castleman's disease presents with severe oral mucositis and cutaneous lichenoid lesions. Serum autoantibodies against plakin proteins are the most diagnostic markers. Pulmonary injury with respiratory failure is the cause of death in most cases.",
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N2 - Background: Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is an autoimmune mucocutaneous disease associated with lymphoproliferative neoplasms, and frequently with a very rare tumour, Castleman's disease. Objectives: To analyse the clinical history, immunopathological and histopathological findings in 28 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PNP and Castleman's disease. Methods: Sera from all patients were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and immunoprecipitation (IP) for plakin autoantibodies, immunoblotting for detection of plectin autoantibodies, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of desmoglein (Dsg)1 and Dsg3 autoantibodies. Results: Severe oral mucositis was observed in all patients, and lichenoid cutaneous lesions were seen in 19 of 28. Twenty cases of Castleman's disease were of the hyaline vascular type, four were of plasmacytoid type and four were of mixed type. Striking findings included pulmonary destruction leading to bronchiolitis obliterans in 26 patients and fatal outcome due to respiratory failure in 22 patients with pulmonary involvement. Histological findings included lichenoid and interface dermatitis with variable intraepithelial acantholysis. Direct IF showed deposition of IgG and C3 in the mouth and skin in 24 of 28 patients. However, indirect IF detected serum IgG autoantibodies in all patients. IP revealed IgG autoantibodies against desmoplakin I, envoplakin and periplakin in all cases, and against desmoplakin II and the 170-kDa antigen in 19 patients. Dsg3 and Dsg1 autoantibodies were present in 22 and 11 patients, respectively, and plectin autoantibodies in 23 patients. Conclusions: PNP in association with Castleman's disease presents with severe oral mucositis and cutaneous lichenoid lesions. Serum autoantibodies against plakin proteins are the most diagnostic markers. Pulmonary injury with respiratory failure is the cause of death in most cases.

AB - Background: Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is an autoimmune mucocutaneous disease associated with lymphoproliferative neoplasms, and frequently with a very rare tumour, Castleman's disease. Objectives: To analyse the clinical history, immunopathological and histopathological findings in 28 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of PNP and Castleman's disease. Methods: Sera from all patients were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and immunoprecipitation (IP) for plakin autoantibodies, immunoblotting for detection of plectin autoantibodies, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of desmoglein (Dsg)1 and Dsg3 autoantibodies. Results: Severe oral mucositis was observed in all patients, and lichenoid cutaneous lesions were seen in 19 of 28. Twenty cases of Castleman's disease were of the hyaline vascular type, four were of plasmacytoid type and four were of mixed type. Striking findings included pulmonary destruction leading to bronchiolitis obliterans in 26 patients and fatal outcome due to respiratory failure in 22 patients with pulmonary involvement. Histological findings included lichenoid and interface dermatitis with variable intraepithelial acantholysis. Direct IF showed deposition of IgG and C3 in the mouth and skin in 24 of 28 patients. However, indirect IF detected serum IgG autoantibodies in all patients. IP revealed IgG autoantibodies against desmoplakin I, envoplakin and periplakin in all cases, and against desmoplakin II and the 170-kDa antigen in 19 patients. Dsg3 and Dsg1 autoantibodies were present in 22 and 11 patients, respectively, and plectin autoantibodies in 23 patients. Conclusions: PNP in association with Castleman's disease presents with severe oral mucositis and cutaneous lichenoid lesions. Serum autoantibodies against plakin proteins are the most diagnostic markers. Pulmonary injury with respiratory failure is the cause of death in most cases.

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KW - Paraneoplastic syndrome

KW - Pemphigus

KW - Plakin protein

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