Parametric Response Mapping of FLAIR MRI Provides an Early Indication of Progression Risk in Glioblastoma

Benjamin A. Hoff, Benjamin Lemasson, Thomas L. Chenevert, Gary D. Luker, Christina I. Tsien, Ghoncheh Amouzandeh, Timothy D. Johnson, Brian D. Ross

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Rationale and Objectives: Glioblastoma image evaluation utilizes Magnetic Resonance Imaging contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted, and noncontrast T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) acquisitions. Disease progression assessment relies on changes in tumor diameter, which correlate poorly with survival. To improve treatment monitoring in glioblastoma, we investigated serial voxel-wise comparison of anatomically-aligned FLAIR signal as an early predictor of GBM progression. Materials and Methods: We analyzed longitudinal normalized FLAIR images (rFLAIR) from 52 subjects using voxel-wise Parametric Response Mapping (PRM) to monitor volume fractions of increased (PRMrFLAIR+), decreased (PRMrFLAIR-), or unchanged (PRMrFLAIR0) rFLAIR intensity. We determined response by rFLAIR between pretreatment and 10 weeks posttreatment. Risk of disease progression in a subset of subjects (N = 26) with stable disease or partial response as defined by Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria was assessed by PRMrFLAIR between weeks 10 and 20 and continuously until the PRMrFLAIR+ exceeded a defined threshold. RANO defined criteria were compared with PRM-derived outcomes for tumor progression detection. Results: Patient stratification for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was achieved at week 10 using RANO criteria (PFS: p <0.0001; OS: p <0.0001), relative change in FLAIR-hyperintense volume (PFS: p = 0.0011; OS: p <0.0001), and PRMrFLAIR+ (PFS: p <0.01; OS: p <0.001). PRMrFLAIR+ also stratified responding patients’ progression between weeks 10 and 20 (PFS: p <0.05; OS: p = 0.01) while changes in FLAIR-volume measurements were not predictive. As a continuous evaluation, PRMrFLAIR+ exceeding 10% stratified patients for PFA after 5.6 months (p<0.0001), while RANO criteria did not stratify patients until 15.4 months (p <0.0001). Conclusion: PRMrFLAIR may provide an early biomarker of disease progression in glioblastoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1711-1720
Number of pages10
JournalAcademic radiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Glioma
  • PRM
  • Progression
  • Response

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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