Since its inception more than 30 years ago, vascularized pancreas transplantation has undergone considerable progress. Given the unique complications associated with transplantation of this organ, modifications in surgical technique have been necessary to improve outcomes. As a result of these surgical advances and improvements in organ preservation and immunosuppression, contemporary graft survival rates approach 90% at 1 year. Despite this level of success, the technique of pancreas transplantation remains controversial. Future efforts to reduce morbidity and minimize immunosuppression will enable pancreas transplantation to remain an important therapeutic option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
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