Palliative Care Utilization in Nontraumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the United States

Santosh B. Murthy, Yogesh Moradiya, Daniel F. Hanley, Wendy C. Ziai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Palliative care is now recognized as an essential component of comprehensive care in serious illness that interferes with quality of life. We explored utilization of palliative care in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage at a population level using a large national database. Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Setting: Inpatient hospital admissions from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Patients: A total of 311,217 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Interventions: Palliative care use. Measurements and Main Results: Intracerebral hemorrhage patients with and without palliative care were identified from the 2007-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes. Demographics, comorbidities, surgical procedures, and hospital characteristics were compared between patients receiving and not receiving palliative care (code V66.7). Resource utilization measures were inflation-adjusted cost of care and length of stay. Pearson chi square and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests were used for categorical and continuous variables respectively. Logistic regression was used to construct a predictive model of palliative care. Of the 311,217 intracerebral hemorrhage patients, 32,159 (10.3%) received palliative care. Utilization of palliative care increased from 4.3% in 2007 to 16.2% in 2011 (trend p < 0.001). Patients receiving palliative care had higher Charlson comorbidity scores (p < 0.001), higher all-patient refined diagnosis-related group mortality risk (p < 0.001), and lower resource utilization measures compared with those without palliative care. Independent predictors of palliative care use were older age (odds ratio, 4.06; 95% CI, 3.87-4.23; p < 0.001), female sex (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.14-1.20; p < 0.001), Caucasian race (p < 0.001), Medicare insurance (p < 0.001), hospitals in the west and mid-west (p < 0.001), hospital transfer (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.18-1.30; p < 0.001), high intracerebral hemorrhage case volume (p < 0.001), anticoagulant use (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.19-1.31; p < 0.001), higher Charlson comorbidity score, ventriculostomy placement (odds ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.29; p < 0.001), and mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.39-1.49; p < 0.001). Cerebral angiogram, craniotomy, and gastrostomy were independently associated with absence of palliative care use. Conclusions: An apparent increasing trend of palliative care utilization in intracerebral hemorrhage has occurred over the last decade. After clinical severity adjustment, gender and racial differences and hospital characteristics appear to influence palliative care use among intracerebral hemorrhage patients in the United States.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)575-582
Number of pages8
JournalCritical care medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016


  • Clinical outcomes
  • Nationwide Inpatient Sample
  • intracerebral hemorrhage
  • palliative care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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