Oxidative stress and the HIV-infected brain proteome

Lerna Uzasci, Avindra Nath, Robert Cotter

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is capable of infiltrating the brain and infecting brain cells. In the years following HIV infection, patients show signs of various levels of neurocognitive problems termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced the incidence of HIV-dementia, which is the most severe form of HAND, the milder forms have become more prevalent today due to the increased life expectancy of infected individuals. Pre-HAART era markers such as HIV RNA level, CD4+ count, TNF-α, MCP-1 and M-CSF are not able to clearly distinguish mild from advanced HAND. One promising approach for new biomarker discovery is the identification and quantitation of proteins that are post-translationally modified by oxidative and nitrosative species. The occurrence of oxidative and nitrosative stress in HIV-infected brain, both through the early direct and indirect effects of viral proteins and through the later effect on mitochondrial integrity during apoptosis, is well-established. This review will focus on how the reactive species are produced in the brain after HIV infection, the specific oxidative and nitrosative species that are involved in the post-translational modification of the brain proteome, and the methods that are currently used for the detection of such modified proteins. This review also provides an overview of related research pertaining to oxidative stress-related HAND using cerebrospinal fluid and human brain tissue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1167-1180
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology
Volume8
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2013

Keywords

  • Biomarker
  • Dementia
  • HIV
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Nitration
  • Oxidation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology

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